rec.music.beatles frequently asked questions (NEMS)

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    saki@evolution.bchs.uh.edu (saki)

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         rec.music.beatles's Most Frequently Asked Questions List
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			Last Update: 30 May 1995

CONTENTS:

1 Some general information about rec.music.beatles

2 Frequently Asked Questions

  • 2.1 Are the Beatles really getting back together?

  • 2.2 I heard that rare "lost" Beatles songs were found in EMI/Abbey Road Studios and will soon be released on a CD/LP called "Sessions".

  • 2.3. How about the video of "Let It Be"? Where can I get it?

  • 2.4. Is Paul really dead? (Alternate: Did the Beatles have anything to do with the "Paul is dead" scheme?)

  • 2.5. Is it true that Ringo didn't play the drums on most Beatles records?

  • 2.6. How did the Beatles get their name and what does it mean?

  • 2.7. What was the last Beatles song?

  • 2.8 What is the most-covered Beatles song?

  • 2.9 Where can I buy bootleg records?

  • 2.10 What does "J'ai guru deva om" mean?

  • 2.11 What does John Lennon really say at the end of "Strawberry Fields Forever"---"cranberry sauce", "I'm very bored", "I buried Paul"...or something else?

  • 2.12 Why do people refer to Paul McCartney as "Macca"?

  • 2.13 I have an old Beatles record. How much is it worth?

  • 2.14 Which came first, the Byrds' 12-string Rickenbacker or the Beatles' (George Harrison's)?

  • 2.15 Who yells "I've got blisters on my fingers" at the end of "Helter Skelter"?

  • 2.16 I've heard that Paul owns the rights to "Happy Birthday" and requires royalties from anyone who sings it in public!

  • 2.17 Does Paul require all his tour roadies to become vegetarian?

  • 2.18 Is Linda Eastman McCartney related to Eastman Kodak?

  • 2.19 Should I believe some of the more sensationalistic portraits of John Lennon and Yoko Ono presented in books such as "The Secret Lives of John Lennon"?

  • 2.20 What's the deal with the "Saturday Night Live" reunion offer?

  • 2.21 What Beatles songs have drug references?

  • 2.22 Who was Dr. Robert?

  • 2.23 What films should I see related to the Beatles?

  • 2.24 What's the story behind the "butcher cover"?

  • 2.25 What's backwards masking?

  • 2.26 Who was Stuart Sutcliffe?

  • 2.27 Did John and Paul write their songs together or separately?

  • 2.28 Who was first to quit the Beatles?

  • 2.29 Who owns the right to the Beatles' songs?

  • 2.30 What ever happened to Raymond Jones, the young man whom Brian Epstein reported was his first link to the Beatles?

  • 2.31 Who plays the guitar solos at the end of the second side of "Abbey Road," and in what order?

  • 2.32 Isn't it true that there's a hidden sequence of morse code after the lines "Let me take you down..." in "Strawberry Fields Forever"? And doesn't this hidden code spell out John Lennon's initials (J. L.)?

  • 2.33 I heard that "meeting a man from the motor trade" in "She's Leaving Home" really refers to an abortionist in Britain.

  • 2.34 What is the first chord of "A Hard Day's Night"?

  • 2.35 What are the foreign lyrics in "Sun King"?

  • 2.36 Did Pink Floyd and the Beatles ever record a song together?

  • 2.37 What about all those other rumors I just *know* are true?
  • 2.38 Could someone post the Beatles' email addresses?

  • 2.39 What words are spoken at the end of "I Am The Walrus"?

  • 2.40 What does John mean by "stupid get" in "I'm So Tired"?

  • 3 Other sources on the Net

    4 Addresses and Phone Numbers

    5 Recommended Literature


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    <h2> 1 Some general information about rec.music.beatles</h2>
    
    

    1 Some general information about rec.music.beatles

    You're here---the most intense collection of Beatlemaniacs anywhere
    in Usenet-land.
    
    You don't have to be rabid yourself to enjoy the proceedings. An
    elementary interest will do. For newcomers and others, we offer a
    few guidelines, explanations, and suggestions.
    
    WHAT WE DISCUSS
    
    Simple---the Beatles, also known as the Fab Four, the Fabs (to use
    George Harrison's sardonic phraseology), and the Boys (used by some
    particularly besotted fans). But any group relating to the Beatles
    is also fair game. You're welcome to bring into the discussion any
    British Invasion band (Rolling Stones, Animals, etc.) or any contemporary
    American band (Beach Boys, Turtles, etc.); and especially any of the
    Beatles' antecedents (Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley, Buddy Holly et al),
    *as long as* there's some reasonable or perfunctory Beatles connection.
    
    For modern rock *only* (anything post-1970), try rec.music.misc. For
    fifties or sixties rock, try alt.rock-n-roll.oldies. There are now
    mailing lists for both the Rolling Stones and the Beach Boys. Please
    email me for information on how to access these groups.
    
    Rec.music.beatles is a forum for exchange of information and opinions.
    You'll find that it's easy to get around without a map...but some
    background information will serve you well. Knowing the basic
    album releases (now available on CD) will help; so will a passing
    familiarity with the Beatles' film output. "A Hard Day's Night",
    "Help!", "Magical Mystery Tour" are all recommended; "Let It Be"
    is currently out of print but may be available in some video parlors;
    and the documentary "The Compleat Beatles" is well worth the time, as
    is "The Beatles First U.S. Visit" video.
    
    You may be well served by reading r.m.b. for several weeks before sailing in
    with your question. Some topics never seem to die. And some can never
    be settled, viz., was John better than Paul, could Ringo really play
    drums, why wasn't George a better guitarist, etc. Pick your battle
    carefully; you may be surprised at the energy it takes to win!
    
    If you have a question about lyrics, go ahead and ask, but there
    are several good lyric books out, notably Campbell and Murphy's
    "Things We Said Today" and Alan Aldridge's "Illustrated Lyrics".
    
    In recent years, some unauthorized Beatles recordings have emerged
    on the bootleg market, and these often receive much attention on
    the net. Please remember that these are illegal recordings; U.S.
    law prohibits selling, trading, broadcasting, and purchase of
    these items. Discussion goes on nevertheless, but it's considered
    a breach of net etiquette to ask someone publicly to reveal where
    they purchase bootlegs, if they admit to doing so. Likewise you
    may work for a government agency or an institution/university which
    may disapprove of your discussing contraband in public. Please
    keep this in mind and act accordingly, with utmost tact, before
    plunging into the bootleg discussion yourself.
    
    We are a polite bunch of people; flame wars are almost unknown
    in rec.music.beatles, and we ask your cooperation in keeping it
    that way. Comments about a person's spelling, nationality, or
    mental capacity are usually irrelevant to the topic at hand,
    although in the heat of the moment it may seem otherwise to
    you. Other newsgroups have their protocols, which may differ
    significantly from those of r.m.b. We strive for a higher
    plane of conduct. If you must get antagonistic with someone,
    please do it via email. If email is unavailable to you, please
    go take a walk until you cool down.
    
    Many books about the Beatles are available through an organization
    in New Jersey called Beatlefest. They sponsor yearly Beatles
    conventions in Newark, NJ (March), Chicago (August) and Los Angeles
    (November). For information or a catalogue, call 1-800-BEATLES. Don't
    be surprised, but your local university or public library may also
    have a good collection of sourcebooks. Check the on-line or card
    catalog.
    
    And one more thing: now that you've read everything and are ready
    to post, do try to remember several points of netiquette:
    
    1. Please edit your Subject line if it needs it.
    
    2. Please be nice to your fellow rmb'er.
    
    3. Please don't quote a previous article in its entirety.
    
    4. Please keep your .sig shorter than your article.
    
    5. Please don't shout...UNLESS YOU MUST! :-)
    

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    <h2> 2 Frequently Asked Questions</h2>
    
    

    2 Frequently Asked Questions

    Last Update: 30 May 1995

    2.1 Are the Beatles really getting back together?

    The remaining three ex-Beatles---Paul, George and Ringo--- contributed to a multi-part television documentary assembled in England called "The Beatles Anthology," which was aired on television in November, 1995. A considerably longer video package, and ancillary products such as books and CD's also feature input from each of the three.

    The band members accepted some Lennon demos from Yoko Ono and have recorded Lennon's "Free As A Bird", using some new lyrics (by McCartney and Harrison), plus the previously released "Real Love". These are available on the first two "Anthology" volumes. A third song (either another Lennon demo, or a Harrison/McCartney composition) may be on the third volume.

    With the ending of tensions among Harrison and McCartney, the three former Beatles may agree to work together in the future, but such is not guaranteed.

    2.2 I heard that rare "lost" Beatles songs were found in EMI/Abbey Road Studios and will soon be released on a CD/LP called "Sessions".

    "Sessions" actually existed once, legitimately. It included a large number of unreleased and alternate tracks from the Abbey Road Studio tape library, material the Beatles declined to release during their heyday ("Leave My Kitten Alone", "That Means A Lot", "If You've Got Trouble", and so on). The LP was pressed, packaged, and about to be shipped in January 1985 when the project was halted before any sales could be made, at the request of the Beatles.

    "Sessions" has since shown up as a bootleg (and material from this LP, as well as much more, has been widely available on various bootleg packages ever since) but according to EMI will never again be legitimately released. This does not mean, however, that there are *no* plans to ever release alternate/vault Beatles songs.

    An audio "Anthology" (six CD's in all) was released in conjunction with the video series, and features some of the tracks in the format originally prepared for the "Sessions" LP.

    Rumors abound that the "Anthology" discs do not mark the end of Beatles releases, and oft-bootlegged items such as the "Esher demos" may also find a legitimate audience before the turn of the century.

    2.3 How about the video of "Let It Be"? Where can I get it?

    Another one of those legal tangles, alas---"Let It Be" has not been licensed for video distribution for some time and although rumors suggest it will be out soon, there are no apparent plans for its rerelease by any certain date. "Yellow Submarine" is also temporarily unavailable. Some video stores still have it for rent, and some bootleg copies are available here and there.

    2.4 Is Paul really dead? (Alternate: Did the Beatles have anything to do with the "Paul is dead" scheme?)

    Paul is alive and well, and has been since 18 June 1942. He did not die in a car crash and was not replaced by a surrogate called William Campbell. The "Paul is dead" controversy began in mid-1969, and can be traced to origins in the American midwest, possibly a college prank.

    The Beatles have always denied having anything to do with it. The "clues" are either coincidence or not supportable under intense investigation. Ask for the PID note for more information.

    2.5 Is it true that Ringo didn't play the drums on most Beatles records?

    Ringo did indeed play the drums; EMI studio documentation proves he was present and was paid for sessions in the group. The only exceptions: he played tambourine to Andy White's drums on one take of "Love Me Do" in 1962 (producer George Martin wasn't sure Ringo was good enough---he'd just joined the Beatles at that time), and for a week in August 1968 Ringo took off during the White Album sessions, distressed at the group's animosity. Paul and John filled in for him till he returned.

    An anonymous drummer was also paid for sessions involving "Can't Buy Me Love", and some differences in drum tracks are apparent between mono and stereo versions, but whoever the drummer was, he was likely filling in for Ringo, who was filming "A Hard Day's Night" that day. It's unclear whether this instance involved an entirely new drum track or whether Ringo's was merely "sweetened".

    The origins of this rumor are probably an anonymous studio drummer who was hired to overdub the Beatles / Tony Sheridan tapes for early sixties American release, and later claimed to have played on "20 or more Beatles songs". Not on the Beatles actual sessions!

    2.6 How did the Beatles get their name and what does it mean?

    John Lennon and his friend Stuart Sutcliffe came up with the name "Beatles", a pun on Buddy Holly's "Crickets", in 1960.

    2.7 What was the last Beatles song?

    The last Beatles *release* of new material was the LP, Let It Be, Friday, May 8, 1970.

    The last *mixing* was I Me Mine, Thursday, April 2, 1970.

    The last *recording* was with Ringo: Across The Universe, The Long & Winding Road, and I Me Mine, Wednesday, April 1, 1970. The other Beatles were not present on this date.

    The last *single release* was Let It Be b/w You Know My Name, Friday, March 6, 1970.

    The last time *George or Paul were in the studio recording* was Jan. 4, 1970. Everyone but John was there for this. Paul and George did vocals, George did the guitar solo heard on the LP version, Ringo played drums, and Paul shook maracas.

    The last time *John was in the studio* coincided with two other events. The four Beatles were together in the studio recording for the last time, *and* the cover for Abbey Road was shot, on Friday, August 8, 1969. The songs recorded were: Ending (working title for The End) [ironically appropriate], I Want You, and Oh! Darling.

    John wasn't recording anything with the others for nearly 8 months before the last recordings were made.

    2.8 What is the most-covered Beatles song?

    "Yesterday".

    2.9 Where can I buy bootleg records?

    Bootleg recordings of Beatles material, which have proliferated recently, are illegal material. Buying them seems to be illegal, and selling them certainly is. Thus your local record store is unlikely to carry them, but you can always ask for them by title, or take your chances at swap meets or via mailorder. Don't ask publicly on r.m.b. where specifically you can buy such material--it's considered impolite, not to mention dangerous, to require people to reveal sources.

    2.10 What does "J'ai guru deva om" mean?

    Various interpretations. Depends upon how well you read Sanskrit. The traditional translations are "Glory to the teacher", "The heavenly teacher is divine", or "Lift up your spiritual master", followed by the meditative one-word chant "ommmm", refering to the sound of the universe. It was a mantra of John's that he decided to incorporate into "Across The Universe."

    2.11 What does John Lennon really say at the end of "Strawberry Fields Forever"---"cranberry sauce", "I'm very bored", "I buried Paul"...or something else?

    John Lennon himself claimed he said "cranberry sauce." On outtakes of SFF, you can quite clearly hear the words. But if that's not enough, listen to his writing partner, the inimitable Macca:

    (From "The Beatles In Their Own Words"):

    Paul: That wasn't "I buried Paul" at all, that was John saying "cranberry sauce". It was the end of 'Strawberry Fields'. That's John's humour. John would say something totally out of synch, like 'cranberry sauce'. If you don't realise that John's apt to say 'cranberry sauce' when he feels like it, then you start to hear a funny little word there, and you think "Aha!"

    2.12 Why do people refer to Paul McCartney as "Macca"?

    It was apparently a habit among the Quarrymen, the first appellation of the Beatles, to call each other by a nickname. Paul was Macca, George was Hazza, and John was Lennie. Since Ringo wasn't with the group at this time, he missed out (though of course he was self-named "Ringo", feeling that it sounded more western and cowboyesque than Richard, his given name.)

    2.13 I have an old Beatles record. How much is it worth?

    Check "The Beatles Price Guide for American Records", by Cox & Lindsay. If you don't have access to this, you can post your request, but keep in mind the fact that most original Beatles albums and singles are judged very strictly in terms of quality. If your LP has had the normal amount of use, it's probably worth more to you as a sentimental token than it is to collectors.

    2.14 Which came first, the Byrds' 12-string Rickenbacker or the Beatles' (George Harrison's)?

    George received his 12-string from the makers of Rickenbacker guitars in Feb. 1964 and began playing it in sessions from 25 February 1964 onward, most notably on the album "A Hard Day's Night". The Byrds didn't release their first record till 1965. Undeniably, however, once both groups were using 12-string guitars, they influenced each other, as Harrison and Byrds guitarist Roger McGuinn have attested.

    2.15 Who yells "I've got blisters on my fingers" at the end of "Helter Skelter"?

    It's Ringo, according to Mark Lewisohn's "The Beatles Recording History". Many think it sounds like John, but it's not; it's Ringo compaining about his drumsticks.

    2.16 I've heard that Paul owns the rights to "Happy Birthday" and requires royalties from anyone who sings it in public!

    Not true at all; strictly an urban legend. Paul has never owned "Happy Birthday", and has no plans to buy it, according to his New York offices at MPL. Currently a firm called Birch Tree owns the song.

    2.17 Does Paul require all his tour roadies to become vegetarian?

    He does not. He provides food for roadies and crew in keeping with his own current philosophical predilection for vegetarianism (i.e. no meat products served), and will gently proselytize to crew members who insist they need to eat meat; but he has no objection to his crew spending their own money to supplement official road-crew fare.

    2.18 Is Linda Eastman McCartney related to Eastman Kodak?

    No relationship at all. Her family name was originally Epstein and was changed when her grandfather emigrated from Russia in the early 20th century. The Eastmans were involved in law and entertainment representation in and around Scarsdale, NY, where Linda grew up; Linda's mother's family had an interest in a clothing store chain in Queens for some years, and in that sense one might say that Linda is partial heir to a department store concern. Linda's professional dabblings have been in photography, but this is as close as she gets to Eastman-Kodak.

    2.19 Should I believe some of the more sensationalistic portraits of John Lennon and Yoko Ono presented in books such as "The Secret Lives of John Lennon"?

    In a word...no. Neither John Lennon nor Yoko Ono were perfect people, yet both were far from deranged sociopaths. All of Albert Goldman's main sources have a serious lack of credibility, mostly due to personal grdges against John, Yoko, or both.

    Fred Seaman, author of _The Last Days of John Lennon_ and onetime Lennon personal assistant, was sued by Yoko Ono after a number of missing Lennon personal items were discovered in his posession. Although Mr. Seaman acknowledges his bias in his book, and attempts to use it as "justification," this does not make his recounting of facts any more reliable. Additionally, Seaman chooses to "forget" about documents in his own handwriting, indicating plans to "doctor" Lennon's stolen diaries, and also the large amount of recordings and pictures which have appeared on bootlegs, traceable directly to Fred"eric" Seaman.

    The link to Goldman is that Seaman was given an advance for a Lennon book before Goldman's publication. That book was eventually rejected by his publishers because they had "serious doubts concerning the veracity of Seaman's claims." That book was sold to Albert Goldman, and used in large part as his Lennon attack. I would not be surprised if Goldman aided Seaman in obtaining his subsequent publishing deal. (Goldman's books are quickly discredited, but they still sell in huge numbers to a muck-loving public).

    At the time of his death, Mr. Goldman was rumored to be collaborating with Mr. Seaman on an equally scandalous Yoko Ono biography entitled "Black Widow". That potentially libelous tome has been placed on indefinite hold.

    2.20 What's the deal with the "Saturday Night Live" reunion offer?

    During the first season of "Saturday Night Live," (April 24, 1976) producer Lorne Michaels parodied the multimillion dollar offers for a Beatles reunion by publicly offering the "generous" sum of $3000 live on the air. Little did Michaels know that the offer nearly succeeded, with John and Paul going so far as to call a taxi to take them to the studios from the nearby Dakota. (Where the duo were watching the show together) As John relates in his "Playboy" interview, "We nearly got into a cab, but we were actually too tired." The program would milk the "offer" for all it was worth. These included: a second plea from Michaels (where he upped the offer to $3200), the launch of the Rutles on SNL (October, 1976), and joking asides from Michaels to both George Harrison (November 20, 1976) and Paul McCartney (February 13, 1993) when they appeared as musical guests.

    (Thanks to Ed Chen for 2.19 and 2.20).

    2.21 What Beatles songs have drug references?

    While it is undeniable that the Beatles took varieties of drugs during their career, starting with "prellys" (uppers) in Hamburg, marijuana during "Help", LSD and other hallucinogenics after 1965, there is not a shred of evidence that any of their songs *promote* drug-taking or drug use. Nevertheless, many first-generation Beatles fans recall being inspired by what they found in the music and lifestyle of the Fabs to try drugs themselves, almost as if the Beatles were giving them permission to do so. The question is whether actual advocacy was an element of the Beatles' musical message. As with most of their creative expression, the Boys' use of drugs seems to have become an undeniable thread in the fabric of their songs. In print and interviews, the Beatles were always careful to say that drug usage was their personal decision, and that they weren't suggesting the public at large imitate them (see Paul's LSD confession of 1967.)

    As a result, many songs were inspired by drug experiences, but few have actual specific references. "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" was a reference to a drawing by John's young son; the initials are an unfortunate coincidence (though arguably the images in the lyrics were probably based on drug-induced visions). The original drawing has been discovered, and has recently been published.

    Paul has said he meant the words "Found my way upstairs and had a smoke/And somebody spoke and I went into a dream" from "A Day in the Life" as a reference to nicotine. The "I'd love to turn you on" was a multidimensional meaning---turn on to the potentials of life rather than merely a drug user's wish to share the wealth. John said he wrote "She Said, She Said" about an LSD experience he had with Peter Fonda at a party in 1966. "Dr. Robert" is a "tribute" to a NY physician who handed out pills and the like to important people and rock stars (see question 2 below.) "With A Little Help Etc." has a reference to getting high, of course.

    2.22 Who was Dr. Robert?

    A New York physician that practiced during the middle-to-late 1960's, from whom it was easy (for celebrities, at least) to acquire various prescription medications. Most of the drugs were, needless to say, of a rather illegal variety. "If you're down he'll pick you up, Dr. Robert..."

    2.23 What films should I see related to the Beatles?

    Their primary output was "A Hard Day's Night" (1964), superb, funny, B&W film that evokes the best of the early hysteria; "Help" (1965), a strange, ironic take-off on the James-Bond school of filmmaking; "Magical Mystery Tour" (1967), properly a video, very much an in-joke but quite charming; "Yellow Submarine" (1968), a happy accident of witty writing, animation, and great music; "Let It Be" (1970), a mournful, sometimes painful examination of the breakup of a super- group.

    For easy history (you can skip all that reading!) rent or buy "The Compleat Beatles" (1981), which has basically excellent research and great clips of the Fabs' development. Everyone who reads r.m.b. regularly would do well to see this. A nice recent documentary (reedited from an older version by the same directors) is the Maysles Brothers' "The Beatles First U.S. Visit".

    Also ask for Ed Chen's guide to Beatles video/film appearances.

    2.24 What's the story behind the "butcher cover"?

    In the UK the Beatles' release sequence included Rubber Soul (1965) and Revolver (1966). In the US, Capitol avoided extra royalty costs by releasing an interim album called "Yesterday and Today", with some songs from the "Help", "Rubber Soul" and "Revolver" albums. (American law regulated the number of songs which could be included on an LP under a lower royalty rate; hence Capitol regularly issued Beatles LPs in shorter formats than their UK counterparts).

    The Beatles were asked to provide a cover photo. They'd just done a promotional shoot for the "Paperback Writer" single release in England, which included an avant-garde-influenced photo of the Fabs in white lab coats with meat cleavers, hunks of raw steak, and cut-up dolls. This photo actually made it onto "Yesterday and Today" and was shipped to some stores in 1966...until someone at Capitol decided it was in rather poor taste. They recalled the album. Some were "fixed" by pasting over a hastily-photographed picture of the Beatles around a steamer trunk. These album covers provided many hours of amusement for people who wanted to peel off the new cover--- a delicate process, but a successful job would reveal the "butcher cover" underneath. Needless to say, only the first printing of this album had the pasted cover photo; "Yesterday and Today" has been deleted from the Capitol album lineup. You can tell, usually, if the album you have has a butcher cover underneath (though most of these are long since peeled) by looking at the right-hand side of the "steamer trunk" photo, in the white area. If you can see a dark inverted triangle, that *may* be Ringo's turtleneck sweater in the photo underneath.

    A persistent urban legend claims that the "butcher cover" shot, photographed by regular Fabs photographer Robert Whitaker, was staged in protest of the Capitol habit of "butchering" the Beatles' standard UK LP configuration, but looking at the historical facts shows that the photo session was completed in March 1966, expressly for the "Paperback Writer" campaign (though how it illustrated that song is anyone's guess), and before Capitol asked for a suitable cover photo for "Yesterday and Today".

    2.25 What's backwards masking?

    The Beatles began to enjoy experimenting with bits of backwards tape, as can be heard as early as their single "Rain". What "backwards masking" refers to, however, is the alleged recording *forwards* of a reverse message, comprehensible only by playing the song *backwards* --- although this is not the audiophilic definition of the term (which is a phenomenon perceived when a soft passage is followed by a loud passage of music, talk, whatever...the loud noise having a tendency to "mask" the last few seconds of what preceded it.)

    Some of the "Paul is Dead" clues focus on this phenomenon (in the White Album track "Revolution No. 9", for instance). The Beatles denied placing secret messages in their backwards recordings, and said that these were only coincidences. (Although the "end bit" from the Sgt. Pepper CD, played in reverse, sounds too deliberate to be a coincindence, McCartney and George Martin both assert that it is just that, and that there was no intention to hide messages backwards in Beatles songs).

    2.26 Who was Stuart Sutcliffe?

    John's best friend in Liverpool Art College, Stuart was a gifted abstract painter. He played bass for the Silver Beatles only during 1959-1961, when (because of admitted lack of musical talent) he chose to remain in Hamburg with his girlfriend Astrid Kirscherr, herself an artist and first professional photographer for the Beatles. Stuart died in 1962 of a brain hemorrhage.

    2.27 Did John and Paul write their songs together or separately?

    The composition process was most often separate in the physical sense, especially in the early stages of a song. But almost each song underwent a metamorphosis in the recording studio, when John and Paul would give each other "helpful" suggestions on completing a tune. Sometimes one or the other was stuck for an eight-bar middle, or a guitar riff, and the other would fill in. It is undeniable that friendly competition between the two was operant almost from the beginning of their songwriting career (1957) and influenced their songwriting talents. From an early stage, John and Paul had an agreement about acknowleging joint songwriting credit, even if this wasn't strictly fact. Until August 1963, these songs were known as "McCartney-Lennon" tunes; after this point (as Paul remarks in the introduction to "The Beatles Recording History") John "got his way" and the credit became officially "Lennon & McCartney". A few songs were, in fact, written jointly; "Flying", from Magical Mystery Tour, is credited to all four Beatles.

    2.28 Who was first to quit the Beatles?

    Trick question. It was unofficial and well-concealed, but Ringo walked out of the White Album sessions on August 22, 1968, in the middle of recording the album, and proclaimed to the others he had definitely quit. The three remaining Beatles covered for Ringo and apparently (from what can be gleaned from the recording info available) substituted for him on drums on various famous tracks, probably "Back in the USSR" among them. Ringo returned at the end of a week, finding a welcome-back greeting of masses of flowers over his drumkit.

    2.29 Who owns the right to the Beatles' songs?

    During the great Apple debacle the Beatles experienced in the late '60's, the lads found themselves losing tremendous amounts of money and needed a lot of cash fast. This and other contributing factors (like Dick James selling his stake in Northern Songs) led to the Beatles selling the publishing rights to their songs (except for some of the early ones like "Love Me Do" which were published by various companies and are now owned by MPL -- Macca's company). The song rights were for sale again a few years back, and Paul mounted a joint effort with Yoko to buy them back -- but (as Paul tells it) Michael Jackson outrageously outbid everyone, offering a really unheard of and unanticipated price. He walked away with the whole kit and kaboodle.

    Consider the following scenario, if you will. If "Please Please Me" was in a film and not sung by the Beatles, then Mr. Jackson did license it. He owns the song, like a book copyright, while EMI owns rights to the Beatles recordings. Presumably EMI never licenses a Beatles recording for use in such a case unless the Beatles think it's okay (this may be an unofficial arrangement, probably because the Beatles are suing Capitol-EMI for rights of the recordings in the US), which was what caused the uproar over the Nike commercial (apparently Yoko okayed it, but no one asked the others, and, hey, Yoko wasn't a Beatle anyway. :-) ).

    (Thanks to Jay C. Smith for the answer to No. 2.29)

    2.30 What ever happened to Raymond Jones, the young man whom Brian Epstein reported was his first link to the Beatles?

    He was the lad who, we are led to believe, was the individual who asked Brian Epstein for a copy of "My Bonnie", which in turn led to Mr Epstein visiting The Cavern and discovering The Fabs.

    ("My Bonnie" was from the session the Beatles did with Tony Sheridan in 1961, as a backup band. It was released to European markets on the Polydor label; when the Beatles hit the States, "My Bonnie" was rereleased here, but the original Polydor version acquired something of a "cult" status for collectors in 1964, who believed they were on to the first inkling anybody had---as Brian told it in his biography---of the Beatles' music.)

    The evidence currently available---most convincingly from the pen of Bill Harry, who published a Liverpool fanzine called "Mersey Beat", and was a sharp observer of the Mersey music scene---suggests that this story is a fabrication.

    It is almost inconceivable that Brian did not know about The Beatles before that date. Brian was running a very successful record store (Nems), very close to The Cavern (maybe 100 metres), and it is hard to believe could not have heard about the events there.

    As Bill Harry remembers, the Boys were also regular customers in the store, and if their record appetite was as wide-ranging as they have indicated (the full spectrum of American pop, rhythm and blues, and rock/rockabilly), Brian would surely have been busy ordering special titles for them.

    More objectively convincing is the fact that Brian wrote in, and was a major distributor for, Mersey Beat - a newspaper that was at times nothing more than a Beatles fanzine (and Bill Harry was their personal friend, as well).

    Finally - how come this guy has never been traced?

    It seems likely that Raymond Jones was an attempt on Brian's part (through his ghostwriter for "A Cellar Full of Noise", Derek Taylor) to mythologize the Beatles' appearance on the musical horizon. As if they needed mythology!

    (Thanks to Stephen Carter for contributing to No. 2.30.)

    2.31 Who plays the guitar solos at the end of the second side of "Abbey Road," and in what order?

    First off, you need to count the rhythm in 4/4 time:

    1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4....etc. (with each quadruplet
    being one measure or "bar" of 4 beats) -
    

    So, begin counting where they go into the sequence immediately following the drum solo, with the guitars crunching out the chords in unison, and the voices singing, "Love you. Love you...."

    (Then the 1st guitar comes in.)

    di-di-da-da-DAH.... (that "DAH" is count #1 of the first measure)
    
    1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4
    (4 bars, with some high notes by the 3rd bar -
     some folks hear just one guitar here....if so, it's all George;
     I think maybe there are two guitars that sound pretty similar....
     the first 2 bars are Paul, but the 3rd & 4th [the high notes] are
     definitely George; logic would suggest the latter possibility [2 bars each])
    
    1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4
    (2 bars of dirty, crunchy, nasty fast chordal chomping - definitely John)
    
    1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4
    (2 bars, steady 8th-note, whiny-tone, high notes in the 2nd - definitely Paul)
    
    1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4
    (2 bars, low, growling notes, whipping up to mid-range notes - George)
    
    1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4
    (2 bars, a few very, low, sustained notes - John)
    
    1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4
    (2 bars, more staccato bursts of shrill, trebly single notes - Paul)
    
    1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4
    (2 bars, quick looping run up to very high notes - George)
    
    1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4
    (2 final bars of slashing ugly chords - who else but John)
    
    

    ....crashing directly into Paul's little piano notes.

    John is clearly identifiable in this sequence. He frequently used that dirty, overmodulated tone, and his tendency was to play chordal, rhythm- style guitar, rather than a lot of clear, high single notes. When he did play single-note runs, he usually bent a few low notes into slightly out-of-tune or dissonant groans, like in "Happiness is a Warm Gun".

    Paul's style is also obvious where he uses that shrill, whiny, piercing thin tone that he seems to like. You can hear it in a number of his other recorded guitar solos, like on "Back in the USSR", and much of the stuff on his 1st solo lp and "Ram".

    George didn't have the most obvious guitar style back then, with his fingerstyle (he's absolutely unmistakable with his later slide style of playing). But you can tell it's him in this sequence by listening to some of his other solos from various 1968-69 recordings ("Savoy Truffle", "Let it Be", others).

    (Thanks to Stuart Troutman for his contribution to No. 2.31.)

    2.32 Isn't it true that there's a hidden sequence of morse code after the lines "Let me take you down..." in "Strawberry Fields Forever"? And doesn't this hidden code spell out John Lennon's initials (J. L.)?

    Bob Clements, our resident amateur radio expert, answers:

    The "code" is pretty clearly there if you listen for it. It appears from 0:16 to 0:20 on the official release (Magical Mystery Tour CD) on the left channel. It does sound a lot like intentional hand-sent Morse. As I read it, it says:

    	-.-  .-  -.-  -  -  .  .-
    

    where the last dash is considerably extended and there is too long a space between the first dash and the first dot. This translates as "KAKTTEA" if you believe it's Morse.

    But it isn't.

    It gets interesting if you listen to the various outtakes. We know from Lewisohn and other evidence that the released SFF is spliced together from a "slow" version (mixed from take 7) and a "fast" version (mixed from take 25). If you listen to take 7, you find that the "code" appears after the same vocal phrase three times, only the first of which appears in the official release. And the second and third occurrences sound much less like Morse code. They are certainly not the same patterns (or "letters"). They also have a little dynamics, fading at the end of some dashes rather than the on/off keying that makes it seem like Morse.

    The "code" as we hear it on the released version first appears at take 6, which is where that vocal track first appears. (Take 5 was a false start.)

    What is really fascinating, though, is take 4. On that take, a different vocal track appears AND a different "code" sound appears. It is shorter, less Morse-like, and less of a pure tone. It sounds like some kind of intermodulation distortion, but I can't pick out what the source is.

    My GUESS is that it's coming from the Mellotron (also on the left channel) or something sitting on/near the Mellotron, vibrating in response to that particular sustained minor chord. I think that chord is repeated every time the "take you down 'cause I'm going to" line occurs, and it doesn't appear elsewhere.

    That's the end of my speculation. Sources: The outtakes on URT1, the Condor "Srawberry Fields" CD, and the vinyl URT6 which has takes 1 through 7. And THE BOOK (i.e., Lewisohn's "...A Recording History").

    --Bob Clements, K1BC, clements@bbn.com

    2.33 I heard that "meeting a man from the motor trade" in "She's Leaving Home" really refers to an abortionist in Britain.

    According to our linguistics expert, Harold Somers, there is no basis for this assertion. An abortionist is not "a man from the motor trade." The man in question is Terry Doran, a friend and later associate of the Beatles who used to be a car salesman before he worked for Epstein and later for Apple Corps. The reference to Doran was just a personal tribute by Paul. Most theories indicate that the girl leaving home is, in fact, running away with a car salesman because, presumably, he can make her happy.

    2.34 What is the first chord of "A Hard Day's Night"?

    Harold Somers says:

    I'd call it D7sus4/G.

    Even if you had a 12-string, it would not sound perfect unless you were lucky enough (rich enough) to have a *Rickenbacker* 12-string, which is strung differently (the octave strings are above rather than below the normal strings - that's why the Ricky sounds distinctive).

    ---- Paul Schwotzer, pws@hp-lsd.COS.HP.COM, says: This is one that was sent to me, it sounds pretty good: +---|---|-O-|---|---|--- N+---|---|-O-|---|---|--- E+---|---|-O-|---|-O-|--- C+---|---|-O-|---|---|--- K+---|---|-O-|---|-O-|--- +---|---|-O-|---|---|--- ----

    Joe "Top Gear" Gogan, v086kzmq@ubvmsd.cc.buffalo.edu, says:

    I posted this along time ago, that the chord is very possibly TWO guitars.

    The chord definitely has 'G7,9sus4etc...' characteristics to it, but when my band played this live, we added a D ? on the other guitar played at the same time. It achieved astounding results. The D ? that was played was the one found on the fifth fret:

    8 7 6 5 4 3 | | | | x | | | | | | x | | | | x | | x | | | | | | x | | | x | | | x | | | | | | x | |

    Why not play the D? in first position, with the G bass on 6th string, on my Ricky 360/12v64 no-less. This one, if not two guitars is the closest I've heard, but you be the judge. It looks like this:

    3 2 1 nut | 3 | | || | | | || | | | || | | 2 | || | | | 1 || | 4 | | || ----
    Dan Kozak, dbk@mimsy.umd.edu, responds to Joe Gogan:
    
    >  I posted this along time ago, that the chord is very possibly TWO guitars.
    

    Nope, tho' 12 strings _do_ sound that way sometimes (I should know, I've got enough of them).

    >   The chord definitely has 'G7,9sus4etc...' characteristics to it, but when my
    > band played this live, we added a D ? on the other guitar played at the same
    > time.   It achieved astounding results.   The D ? that was played was the one
    > found on the fifth fret:
    

    Almost right chord, wrong position . . . I don't know about anybody else, but I find the difference between a bar chord and an open chord (i.e. with open strings) to be like that between night and day. The HDN chord is an open chord, which I would describe as D7sus4/A.

    >      Why not play the D? in first position, with the G bass on 6th string,
    > on my Ricky 360/12v64 no-less.   This one, if not two guitars is the closest
    > I've heard, but you be the judge.  It looks like this:
    

    This is very close to what I posted when this started recently except that I indicated that all three low strings (E, A, D) were open, but now I'd like to revise that to say that if you hit the low E at all, it should be very slightly, i.e. accidently. There is no G in the bass in this chord, the low note is the open A string.

    > Please, someone who has tried these two please tell me what you think, but
    > not before you try them.
    

    I have . . . on a '67 366-12 through a pre-62 Vox AC-30, no less. :-) And I played it with the record. You might also note that the ending (overdubbed) guitar pattern is based on this same form -- pick the top 3 strings and go between the D7sus4 and a Dm7 (i.e. G to F on the high E).

    2.35 What are the foreign lyrics in "Sun King"?

    Note that the Beatles freely mixed dialects and languages here, and when this is combined with less than perfect enunciation and accent, many uncertainties arise, leading to many possible interpretations.

    The lyrics are usually published as:
    
       Quando paramucho mi amore de felice corazon
       Mundo paparazzi mi amore chica ferdy parasol
       Cuesto obrigado tanta mucho que can eat it carousel
    
    But that is NOT correct.  I believe the lyrics could be:
    
       Quando para mucho, mi amore de felice corazon
       Mundo paparazzi, mi amore, chicka/chica ferdy/verde para sole
       Cuesto a brigata, tanta mucho, que/cake and eat it, care of sun
    
    NOTE CHANGES:  "chicka ferdy" is a Liverpool expresssion of
                     indeterminate meaning, but could also
                     be a combination Spanish/Liverpudlian pun
                     "chica verde" [green girl]
    
                    "parasol"  could be "para sole" [for the sun],
                     or perhaps "pa re sole" [for sun king],
    
                    "que can eat it" should be "que/cake and eat it", (see John's
                     comments below on this pun),
    
                    "carousel"  could be "care of sun".
    
                    "obrigado" could be "apre gabbo" [open deception]
                     or perhaps "obligado" [obgligation]
                     or "a brigata" [a party].
                     or "obbligado" [musical term - what is it?]
                     or "Abrigado" [raincoat].
    

    So a rough literal translation would be:

      Quando  para mucho mi amore de felice corazon
      IF/WHEN FOR  MUCH, MY LOVE  OF HAPPY  HEART
    
      Mundo paparazzi  mi amore chicka/chica ferdy/verde  pa  re   sole
      WORLD PAPARAZZI, MY LOVE, CHICKA/GIRL  FERDY/GREEN  FOR KING SUN
    
    [then choose one of these three]
    
      Cuesto a brigata,   tanta mucho, que/cake and eat it, care of sun
      THIS     PARTY  ,   VERY  MUCH,      CAKE AND EAT IT, CARE OF SUN
    
      Cuesto apre gabbo,        tanta mucho, que/cake and eat it, care of sun
      THIS   OPEN DECEPTION ,   VERY  MUCH,      CAKE AND EAT IT, CARE OF SUN
    
      Cuesto obligado,     tanta mucho, que/cake and eat it, care of sun
      THIS   OBLIGATION,   VERY  MUCH,      CAKE AND EAT IT, CARE OF SUN
    
    (Thanks to Mario Giannella for the above.)
    

    2.36 Did Pink Floyd and the Beatles ever record a song together?

    Pink Floyd, when Syd Barrett was still a member, was involved in recording at EMI Studios, Abbey Road (later Abbey Road Studios) at the same time The Beatles were busy recording "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band", but the two groups did not record together, and may have met only briefly in their comings and goings at the studio in March 1967.

    2.37 I heard a story about [various common Beatles-related rumors]....

    Some of the more persistent urban legends include the following:

      "The Beatles made up all the Paul Is Dead clues". -- No evidence for this whatsoever. See Andru Reeve's book "Turn Me On, Dead Man" for details.

      "Norwegian Wood was originally titled Knowing She Would". -- There's no available evidence for this argument. In fact, the song's working title was "This Bird Has Flown".

      "Ringo didn't perform the drum solo on Abbey Road". -- He did; studio documentation proves it.

      "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds refers to LSD". -- The song's title derives from a painting done by John's son Julian. John claimed the lyrics referred to Lewis Carroll's "Alice" books.

      "If you listen to the end of Strawberry Fields Forever, you can hear John say 'I buried Paul'." -- Sorry. He doesn't. He says 'Cranberry Sauce'

      The Beatles used the 'butcher' cover on 'Yesterday and Today' to protest Capitol's butchery of their British LPs." -- The photo was actually part of an art-piece quite separate from promotional requirements. It was used to advertise their single "Paperback Writer"/"Rain" before being used (for a short time) on the cover of their American LP. No evidence exists suggesting that it was a protest against Capitol.

    2.38 Could someone post the Beatles' email addresses?

    The Beatles do not have Internet accounts (so far as we know) nor email addresses. Any reference to apparently legitimate routes (such as macca@thrillington.com or fabs@apple_corps.edu) are entirely bogus.

    Mark Lewisohn, Beatles scholar extraordinaire, also does not have an Internet computer account, though he does recieve occasional interesting r.m.b. debates, forwarded to him via other methods.

    2.39 What words are spoken at the end of "I Am The Walrus"?

    It's an excerpt from a BBC radio broadcast of Shakespeare's "King Lear", Act IV Scene VI. See Lewisohn's "Recording Sessions", p. 128-129, for details.

    2.40 What does John mean by "stupid get" in "I'm So Tired"?

    "Get" is a Northern English variant on the word "git", and it is a term of mild-to-moderate insult on the level of "twit", "fool", "bastard". John's lyrical insult is directed at "Sir Walter Raleigh", who introduced tobacco to England and whose name was once the same as a brand of cigarettes.


    -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-
    
    <h2> 3 Other sources of information on the Net</h2>

    3 Other sources of information on the Net

    Topic Specific FAQ's:
    
    - Are you new to this newsgroup, or new to the entire Usenet world? Ask
      for "Introduction to rec.music.beatles", wherein you can learn how this
      newsgroup works, guidelines on how to post, etc. (INTRO). Last update:
      1 December 1994.
    
    - Where's your area of interest? New or old releases? Collectibles?
      Current availability of books, music, videos? Ask for the FAQs to see
      if your question has been asked. These Frequently-Asked-Questions
      may answer your query. Nems I is for starters. And if you're ready
      for the graduate-level Frequently Asked Questions, ask for Nems II.
      (Specify NEMS I or NEMS II). Last update: 1 December 1994 (NEMS I);
      1 December 1994 (NEMS II).
    
    - The Compleat Book List...well, as complete as we can get it. Updates
      and emendations welcome. Compiled by Steve Carter and saki. Ask
      for ALLBOOKS. Last update: 1 March 1994.
    
    - A smaller booklist for those just starting out, or those wishing to
      peruse a few titles at a time (ask for SOMEBOOKS). Last update:
      1 December 1994.
    
    - A considerably pithy treatise on the "Paul Is Dead" myth (PID),
      with new information on possible origins of the hoax!
      Last update: 1 March 1994.
    
    - Doug Sulpy's excellent and studious intro to the best bootlegs
      as they appeared to him in 1990. (ask for RARE). Last editorial
      update: 1 March 1993.
    
    - Scott Galuska's reknowned list of Beatles songs covered by other
      artists, now administered by Ross Clement; ask for COVERS. Last
      update: 15 November 1994.
    
    - Harold Somers' Guide to Britishisms/Americanisms in the Beatles'
      music; ask for BRITGUIDE. Last update: 1 March 1994.
    
    - A traveler's guide to Beatles sights and sites in Liverpool and
      London; ask for TRIP. Last update: 1 July 1993.
    
    - Beatles Novelty Records, compiled by moko. Ask for NOVELTY.
      Last update: 31 May 1993.
    
    - Video Beatles, a guide to available appearance of the Boys in
      film and television appearances, written by Ed Chen. Ask for
      VIDEO and specify Part I (Beatles), Part II (Solo) or both. Last
      update: VIDEO I (April 1994), VIDEO II (July 1994).
    
    - A long reference---in alphabetical order, no less---of British
      musical groups, from the early 1950's to the British Invasion;
      ask for BRITPOP. Last update: July 1992.
    
    - What Goes On---a comprehensive compendium of recording anomalies,
      oddities, mistakes, misapprehensions, melodic curios. Ask for
      ANOMALIES. Last update: 17 January 1994.
    
    - Beatlesesque Groups---a listing of names and albums/CDs of
      groups or singers whose sound is reminiscent, or downright
      imitative, of the Fabs; written by Robert Berry. Ask for
      ESQUE. Last update: 1 March 1994.
    
    - Variations---Joe Brennan's comprehensive, eminently scholarly and
      intensely readable 5-part compendium about variations in the Fabs'
      recording oeuvre. Ask for VARIATIONS. Last update: 2 May 1994
    
    - Things We Said---A list of commonly misunderstood phrases and
      lyrical bits from the Beatles' compositional/recording songbook.
      Ask for SAID. First version: 1 May 1994.
    

    FTP

    ftp.netcom.com /pub/foxx/beatles -- Beatles Rarity and interview sound files, Beatles GIFs

    bobcat.bbn.com /public/beatles -- Many Beatles faqs and album cover GIFS

    cs.uwp.edu /pub/music/lyrics/b/beatles/ -- Beatles lyrics

    beatles.cselt.stet.it /pub/beatles/ -- Mirrors bobcat in Italy

    cs.uwp.edu /pub/music/pictures/b/beatles/ -- Beatles lyrics

    ftp.nevada.edu /pub/guitar/b/beatles/ -- Beatles Guitar Tabs

    Beatles WWW Pages:

    (See here for links to all of these pages and more)

    The Official rec.music.beatles Home Page

    http://rmb.simplenet.com/public/rmb.html

    [You're already here if you're reading this!]
    The Beatles On The Web
        http://www.walrus.com/~warren/beatles.html
    Alan Braverman's Beatles Page
        http://turtle.ncsa.uiuc.edu/alan/beatles.html
    Joe Brennan's Beatles Page
        http://www.cc.columbia.edu/~brennan/beatles.html
    Sam Choukri's John Lennon Page
        http://www.missouri.edu/~c588349/john-page.html
    Ross Clement's Beatles Covers database
        http://www.wmin.ac.uk/~clemenr/covers/covers.html
    Maurizio Codogno's Beatles Page
        http://beatles.cselt.stet.it/rmb/
    Harald Gernhardt's Beatles Page
        http://cip2.e-technik.uni-erlangen.de:8080/hyplan/gernhard/beatles.html
    Aaron Gill's Paul McCartney Page
        http://www.halcyon.com/marieg/paul.html
    Dave Haber's Beatles Album
        http://www.primenet.com/~dhaber/beatles.html
    Dave Haber's Rutles Home Page
        http://www.primenet.com/~dhaber/rutles.html
    Jeffrey Jacobs' George Harrison Page
        http://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~timelord/Harrison/George.html
    David Kaufman's Beatles Multimedia Exhibit
        http://orathost.cfa.ilstu.edu/public/oratGallery/artsExhibits/ ...
            kaufmanExhibit/home.html
    Mike Markowski's Beatles Page
        http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~markowsk/beatles/
    The Pepperland Sgt. Pepper Archive
        http://www.wam.umd.edu/~pepperlh/
    David Robinson's Beatles Page
        http://sun1.bham.ac.uk/cca93054/beatles/index.html
    The Obvious Moose Page - Live At The BBC Pics
        http://psy.ucsd.edu/~scott/beatles.html
    
    Cardiff's Movie Database Beatles Index
        http://rmb.simplenet.com/public/files/bbs/cardiff.html
    Dead Beatles - from The Death of Rock 'N Roll by Jeff Pike
        http://weber.u.washington.edu/~jlks/pike/beatle.html
    EMI Online: The Beatles (see note below)
        http://www.riv.nl/emi/pop/beatles.htm
    A Mini Tour Of Liverpool
        http://www.csc.liv.ac.uk/users/u2jww/tour/tour.html
    
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    <h2> 4 Addresses and Phone Numbers
    
    

    4 Addresses and Phone Numbers

    All of the information is valid as of the current date.   Write before sending
    any money.
    


    Beatlefan

          P.O Box 33515
          Decatur, GA. 30033 (USA)
          (6 iss/year, $15.00 per year regular mail, $19.00 express mail,
           also available is "Extra" which offers 18 updates per year for
           $30.00 regular mail, $34.00 express, $36.00 Fax.   Write for
           overseas rates)
    

    910

          P.O. Box 114
          Princeton, Junction, N.J. 08550 (USA)
          ph: (609)-490-0864
          (6 iss/year, $22.50 US.)
          (call or write sds910@aol.com for current overseas subscription info)
    
    

    Good Day Sunshine

          c/o Matt Hurwitz
          P.O. Box 1008
          Mar Vista, Ca.  90066-1008
          (5 iss/year, $15.00 US, $24.00 VIP-US, $18.00 Canada, $24.00 elsewhere)
    
    

    Beatles Monthly

          45 St. Mary's Road
          Ealing, London
          W5 5RQ (England)
          (12 iss/year, L26.00 England, $47.00 US, write otherwise)
    

    The Paul McCartney Fun Club (Club Sandwich)

          PO Box 110
          Westcliff, Essex SS0 8NW (England)
          (4 iss/year, $16.75 per year US funds)
    

    The Harrison Alliance

          67 Cypress Street
          Bristol, CT. 06010 (USA)
          (Send SASE for current subscription info)
    
    

    Beatles Video Digest

          PO Box 13322
          Des Moines, IOWA 50310-0322
          btlviddgst@aol.com
          (4 iss/year $10 U.S./$15 Intl.)
    

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    <h2> 5 Recommended Literature</h2>

    5 Recommended Literature

    The newsgroup tends to be rather text- and sourcebook-based. You'll see people
    refer to various references to settle discussions.
    
    The Beatles are perhaps the most written-about band of all time.   They are
    so written about, that it would take an eternity to read everything available.
    Here's a "top ten" list of Beatles literature, with a reminder to get
    ALLBOOKS for a more complete listing:
    
    5.1  _The Beatles: A Recording History_ -- Mark Lewisohn
    5.2  _The Complete Beatles Chronicle_   -- Mark Lewisohn
    5.3  _The Beatles' London_              -- Lewisohn, et.al.
    5.4  _Beatlesongs!_                     -- William Dowlding
    5.5  _The Playboy Interviews with John Lennon and Yoko Ono_ -- David Sheff
    5.6  _Lennon_                           -- Ray Coleman
    5.7  _The Beatles_ (official biography) -- Hunter Davies
    5.8  _Drugs, Divorce, and a Slipping Image_ -- Doug Sulpy, et.al.
    5.9  _The Lennon Companion: 25 years of Comment_ -- Elizabeth Thompson, et.al.
    5.10 _The 910's Guide to the Beatles' Outtakes_ -- Doug Sulpy
    
    It's recommended that you avoid reference works written by people
    whose scholarship is suspect or who are out mainly for gossip and
    innuendo (Albert Goldman, Geoffrey Giuliano), unless you're prepared
    to keep it in perspective.
    
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    Click here to return.

    Click here to return to the FAQ index.