Newsgroups: alt.drugs.caffeine,,,alt.answers,rec.answers,news.answers
From: (Alex Lopez-Ortiz)
Subject: Coffee and Caffeine's Frequently Asked Questions
Followup-To: alt.drugs.caffeine
Summary: All you wanted to know about caffeinated beverages
Organization: University of Waterloo
Date: Thu, 24 Nov 1994 20:00:27 GMT
Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.Edu
Expires: Fri, 23 Dec 1994 20:00:22 GMT
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Xref: alt.drugs.caffeine:5505 alt.answers:5822 rec.answers:8582 news.answers:29908

Archive-Name: caffeine-faq
Last-modified: September 14, 1994
Version: 2.1

Frequently Asked Questions about Coffee and Caffeine

Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz 

This group is dedicated to all beverages and products that contain caffeine;
including tea, coffee, chocolate, mate, caffeinated soft drinks, caffeinated
pills, coffee beans, etc.

 1. The Chemistry of Caffeine and related products 
    1. How much caffeine is there in [drink/food/pill]? 
    2. Chemically speaking, what is caffeine? 
    3. Is it true that tea has no caffeine/What is theine, theobromine,
    4. Where can I find a gif of the caffeine molecule? 
    5. Is it true that espresso has less caffeine than regular coffee? 
    6. How does caffeine taste? 
    7. How much theobromine/theophylline there is in ...? 
 2. How to brew the ultimate caffeine drink? 
    1. What is the best temperature for drip coffee? 
    2. Quality of coffee 
    3. Why you should never use percolators
 3. Peripherals and Secondary Storage 
    1. Proper care of Coffee makers... 
    2. How to store coffee? 
    3. Equipment reviews? 
 4. Caffeine and your Health 
    1. What happens when you overdose? 
    2. Studies on the side-effects of caffeine... 
    3. Caffeine and your metabolism. 
 5. Miscellaneous 
    1. How do you pronounce mate? 
    2. How do you spell Colombia/Colombian? 
    3. How do you spell Espresso?
 6. Coffee Recipes and other beverages. 
    1. Espresso 
    2. Capuccino 
    3. How to make your own chocolate 
    4. How to make the best cup of coffee 
    5. Turkish Coffee 
    6. Thai Iced Coffee 
    7. Vietnamese Iced Coffee 
    8. Melya
 7. Administrivia 
    1. List of Contributors 
    2. Copyright 

 1. The Chemistry of Caffeine and related products

    1. How much caffeine is there in [drink/food/pill]? 

      According to the National Soft Drink Association, the
      following is the caffeine content in mgs per 12 oz can of soda: 

      Jolt                    100.0
      Sugar-Free Mr. Pibb     58.8
      Mountain Dew            55.0  (no caffeine in Canada)
      Diet Mountain Dew       55.0
      Mello Yellow            52.8
      Tab                     46.8
      Coca-Cola               45.6
      Diet Cola               45.6
      Shasta Cola             44.4
      Shasta Cherry Cola      44.4
      Shasta Diet Cola        44.4
      Mr. Pibb                40.8
      OK Soda                 40.5
      Dr. Pepper              39.6
      Pepsi Cola              37.2
      Aspen                   36.0
      Diet Pepsi              35.4
      RC Cola                 36.0
      Diet RC                 36.0
      Diet Rite               36.0
      Canada Dry Cola         30.0
      Canada Dry Diet Cola    1.2
      7 Up                    0

      By means of comparison, a 7 oz cup of coffee has the following
      caffeine (mg) amounts, according to Bunker and McWilliams
      in _J Am Diet_ 74:28-32, 1979: 

      Drip                    115-175
      Espresso                100mg of caffeine   
      1 serving (1.5-2oz) 

      Brewed                  80-135
      Instant                 65-100
      Decaf, brewed           3-4
      Decaf, instant          2-3
      tea, iced (12 ozs.)     70
      tea, brewed, imported   60
      tea, brewed, U.S.       40
      tea, instant            30

      The variability in the amount of caffeine in a cup of coffee or
      tea is huge even if prepared by the same person using the same
      equipment and ingredients day after day. 

      Reference Variability in caffeine consumption from coffee and
      tea: Possible significance for epidemiological studies by B.
      Stavric, R. Klassen, B. Watkinson, K. Karpinski, R. Stapley, and
      P. Fried in "Foundations of Chemical Toxicology", Volume 26,
      number 2, pp. 111-118, 1988 and an easy to read overview, 
      Looking for the Perfect Brew by S. Eisenberg, "Science News",
      Volume 133, April 16, 1988, pp. 252-253. 

      Quote from the lab manual:

      Caffeine is present in tea leaves and in coffee to the extent of
      about 4%. Tea also contains two other alkaloids,
      theobromine and theophylline. These last two relax the
      smooth muscles where caffeine stimulates the heart and
      respiratory systems. 

      Steve Dyer says: 

      Theobromine is virtually inactive. Both caffeine and
      theophylline stimulate the heart and respiratory systems and
      relax smooth muscle (such as in the bronchioles).
      Theophylline is somewhat more toxic and somewhat less
      powerful a CNS stimulant than caffeine, but they are more
      similar than different. 

      Other data on caffeine: 

      Cup of coffee    90-150mg
      Instant coffee   60-80mg
      Tea              30-70mg
      Cola             30-45mg
      Chocolate bar    30mg
      Stay-awake pill  100mg
      Vivarin          200mg  
      Cold relief tablet  30mg

      The following information is from Bowes and Church's Food
      values of portions commonly used, by Anna De Planter Bowes.
      Lippincott, Phila. 1989. Pages 261-2: Caffeine. 


      Chocolate                               mg caffeine
        baking choc, unsweetened, Bakers--1 oz(28 g) 25
        german sweet, Bakers -- 1 oz (28 g)           8
        semi-sweet, Bakers -- 1 oz (28 g)            13

      Choc chips
        Bakers -- 1/4 cup (43 g)                     13
        german sweet, Bakers -- 1/4 cup (43 g)       15

      Chocolate bar, Cadbury  -- 1 oz (28 g)         15
      Chocolate milk  8oz                             8

      Jello Pudding Pops, Choc (47 g)                 2
      Choc mousse from Jell-O mix (95 g)              6
      Jello choc fudge mousse (86 g)                 12

      3 heaping teaspoons of choc powder mix          8
      2 tablespoons choc syrup                        5
      1 envelope hot cocoa mix                        5

      Dietary formulas
      ensure, plus, choc, Ross Labs -- 8 oz (259 g)  10
      Cadbury Milk Chocolate Bar

      More stuff:

      Guarana "Magic Power" (quite common in Germany),
      15 ml alcohol with
      5g Guarana Seeds        250.0 mg
      Guarana capsules with
      500 mg G. seeds          25.0 mg / capsule

      (assuming 5% caffeine in seeds as stated in literature)

      Guarana soda pop is ubiquitous in Brazil and often available at
      tropical groceries here. It's really tasty and packs a wallop.
      Guarana wakes you up like crazy, but it doesn't cause coffee

      It is possible that in addition to caffeine, there is some other
      substance in guarana that also produces an effect, since it 'feels'
      different than coffee. Same goes for mate. 

    2. Chemically speaking, what is caffeine?

      Chemical Indexes report:

      RN   58-08-2  REGISTRY
      CN   1H-Purine-2,6-dione, 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl- (9CI)  (CA INDEX NAME)
      CN   Caffeine (8CI)
      CN   1,3,7-Trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine
      CN   1,3,7-Trimethylxanthine
      CN   7-Methyltheophylline
      CN   Alert-Pep
      CN   Cafeina
      CN   Caffein
      CN   Cafipel
      CN   Guaranine
      CN   Koffein
      CN   Mateina
      CN   Methyltheobromine
      CN   No-Doz
      CN   Refresh'n
      CN   Stim
      CN   Thein
      CN   Theine
      CN   Tri-Aqua

      MF   C8 H10 N4 O2

      The correct name is the first one,
      1H-Purine-2,6-diione,3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl- (This is
      the "inverted name") The "uninverted name" is

      Merck Index excerpt... 

      Caffeine: 3,7-dihydro- 1,3,7-trimethyl- 1H-purine-
      2,6-dione; 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine; 1,3,7-trimethyl-
      2,6-dioxopurine; coffeine; thein; guaranine;
      methyltheobromine; No-Doz.

      C8H10N4O2; mol wt 194.19. C 49.48%, H 5.19%, N
      28.85%, O 16.48%.

      Occurs in tea, coffee, mate leaves; also in guarana paste and
      cola nuts: Shuman, U.S. pat. 2,508,545 (1950 to General
      Foods). Obtained as a by-product from the manuf of
      caffeine-free coffee: Barch, U.S. pat. 2,817,588 (1957 to
      Standard Brands); Nutting, U.S. pat. 2,802,739 (1957 to Hill
      Bros. Coffee); Adler, Earle, U.S. pat. 2,933,395 (1960 to
      General Foods).

      Crystal structure: Sutor, Acta Cryst. 11, 453, (1958).
      Synthesis: Fischer, Ach, Ber. 28, 2473, 3135 (1895); Gepner,
      Kreps, J. Gen. Chem. USSR 16, 179 (1946); Bredereck et al.,
      Ber. 83, 201 (1950); Crippa, Crippa, Farmaco Ed. Sci. 10,
      616 (1955); Swidinsky, Baizer, U.S. pats. 2,785,162 and
      2,785,163 (1957 to Quinine Chem. Works); Bredereck,
      Gotsmann, Ber. 95, 1902 (1962).

      Hexagonal prisms by sublimation, mp 238 C. Sublimes 178
      C. Fast sublimation is obtained at 160-165 C under 1mm
      press. at 5 mm distance. d 1.23. Kb at 19 C: 0.7 x 10^(-14).
      Ka at 25 C: <1.0 x 10^(-14). pH of 1% soln 6.9. Aq solns of
      caffeine salts dissociate quickly. Absorption spectrum:
      Hartley, J. Chem. Soc. 87, 1802 (1905). One gram dissolves
      in 46 ml water, 5.5 ml water at 80 C, 1.5 ml boiling water,
      66 ml alcohol, 22 ml alcohol at 60 C, 50 ml acetone, 5.5 ml
      chloroform, 530 ml ether, 100 ml benzene, 22 ml boiling
      benzene. Freely sol in pyrrole; in tetrahydrofuran contg
      about 4% water; also sol in ethyl acetate; slightly in petr
      ether. Soly in water is increased by alkali benzoates,
      cinnamates, citrates, or salicylates.

      Monohydrate, felted needles, contg 8.5% H2O. Efflorescent
      in air; complete dehydration takes place at 80 C. LD50
      orally in rats: 200 mg/kg.

      Acetate, C8H10N4O2.(CH3COOH)2, granules or powder;
      acetic acid odor; acid reaction. Loses acetic acid on
      exposure to air. Soluble in water or alcohol with hydrolysis
      into caffeine and acetic acid. Keep well stoppered. 

      Hydrochloride dihydrate, C8H10N4O2.HCl.2H2O, crystals,
      dec 80-100 C with loss of water and HCl. Sol in water and
      in alcohol with dec.

      Therap Cat: Central stimulant.

      Therap Cat (Vet): Has been used as a cardiac and
      respiratory stimulant and as a diuretic.

    3. Is it true that tea has no caffeine/What is theine,
      theobromine, etc?

      From "Principles of biochemistry", Horton and al, 1993. 

      Caffeine is sometimes called "theine" when it's in tea. This
      is probably due to an ancient misconception that the active
      constituent is different. Theophylline is present only in trace
      amounts. It is more diuretic, more toxic and less speedy. 


      Coffee and tea contain caffeine and theophylline,
      respectively, which are me thylated purine derivatives that
      inhibit cAMP phosphodiesterase.In the presence of these
      inhibitors, the effects of cAMP, and thus the stimulatory
      effects of the hormones that lead to its production, are
      prolonged and intensified. 

      Theobromine and theophylline are two dimethyxanthines that
      have two rather than three methyl groups. Theobromine is
      considerably weaker than caffeine and theophylline, having
      about one tenth the stimulating^? effect of either.

      Theobromine is found in cocoa products, tea (only in very small
      amounts) and kola nuts, but is not found in coffee. In cocoa, its
      concentration is generally about 7 times as great as caffeine.
      Although, caffeine is relatively scarce in cocoa, its mainly
      because of theobromine that cocoa is "stimulating".

      Theophylline is found in very small amounts in tea, but has a
      stronger effect on the heart and breathing than caffeine. It often
      the drug of choice in treating asthma bronchitis and
      emphysema. The theophylline found in medicine is made from
      extracts from coffee or tea.

    4. Where can I find a gif of the caffeine molecule? 

      Caffeine = 1,3,7-Trimethylxanthine 

    5. Is it true that espresso has less caffeine than regular coffee?

      Yes and no. An espresso cup has about as much caffeine as a
      cup of dark brew. But servings for espresso are much smaller.
      Which means that the content of caffeine per millilitre are
      much higher than with a regular brew. Moreover, caffeine is
      more quickly assimilated when taken in concentrated dosages,
      such as an espresso cup. 

      The myth of lower caffeine espresso comes comes from the fact
      that the darker roast beans used for espresso do have less
      caffeine than regularly roasted beans (roasting breaks up the
      caffeine in the beans). But espresso is prepared using
      pressurized steam which extracts a higher percentage of
      caffeine from the ground beans than regular drip. 

      Here's the caffeine content of Drip/Espresso/Brewed Coffee: 

      Drip            115-175
      Espresso        100         1 serving (1.5-2oz)
      Brewed          80-135

    6. How does caffeine taste?

      Caffeine is very bitter. Barq's Root Beer contains caffeine and
      the company says that it has "12.78mg per 6oz" and that they
      "add it as a flavouring agent for the sharp bitterness" 

    7. How much theobromine/theophylline there is in ...?

      Sources: Physicians Desk Reference and Institute of Food
      Technologies from Pafai and Jankiewicz (1991) DRUGS AND

      cocoa                      250mg theobromine
      bittersweet choc. bar      130mg theobromine
      5 oz cup brewed coffee     no theobromine
      tea 5oz cup brewed 3min 
      with teabag                3-4 mg theophylline
      Diet Coke                  no theobromine or theophylline

 2. How to brew the ultimate caffeine drink?

    1. What is the best temperature for drip coffee?

      According to chemical studies, the optimal water temperature
      for drip coffee is 95-98C. According to my notes, colder water
      doesn't extract enough caffeine/essential oils from the beans,
      and above such temperature the acidity increases wildly. 

    2. Quality of coffee

      The quality of a brew depend on the following factors (in no
      particular order): 

       1. Time since grinding the beans. 
       2. Time since roasting. 
       3. Cleanliness with brewing equipment. 
       4. Bean quality (what crop etc). 
       5. Water quality. 

      Fact: Unless you are buying some major debris, bean quality is
      not very important.

      Fact: The prepackaged stuff you buy in supermarkets is major
      debris, (in general).

      Many times "inferior beans" are due to (a) adultered beans,
      either with the skin of the coffee bean or with peanut
      derivatives, (b) old grounds and roast. 

    3. Why you should never use percolators.

      Percolators violate most of the natural laws about brewing

       o Don't overextract the oils and flavour. Percolators
         work by taking coffee and reheating it and throwing it
         over the grounds over and over and over again. 
       o Never reheat/boil coffee. This destroys the flavour. For
         best flavour, boil the water, pass it over the grounds and
         retain the heat. Don't reheat it. 

      Violating these rules may not sound like much, but these are
      about the only rules there are. The effect of a percolator is to
      keep passing boiling water/coffee over the grounds until there
      is no flavour left and the flavour in the coffee is so dead that
      it's a worthless waste. 

 3. Peripherals and Secondary Storage

    1. Proper care of coffee makers...

      It is very important that you wash your coffee maker pot and
      filter container thoroughly at least once a week. Bitter oils stick
      to the glass container and plastic filter holder. 

      I used to wash the plastic filter container and rinse the glass pot.
      Coffee started to taste bad. When I was told to wash both
      thoroughly with plenty of soap the flavour improved instantly.
      Note: To the naked eye rinsed and soap washed pots look the
      same (clean that is). 

      Some drip coffee makers require periodic cleansing with a
      solution of water and vinegar. 

      If you have a coffee/teapot, the inside of which is stained with
      oily brown residues - also plastic/metal coffee filters, tea
      strainers, and stainless steel sinks in caffeine-o-phile houses -
      they can be restored to a shining, brand-spanking-new state by
      washing in hot detergent. 

      Get a large plastic jug, add 2..3 heaped tablespoons of Daz
      Automatic or Bold or whatever, and about a pint of hot water -
      just off the boil is the best. 

      Swill the jug around until the detergent is dissolved, and then
      pour into tea/coffeepot, and let it stand for 5 minutes, swilling
      the pot around occasionally, just to keep the detergent moving.
      Put the lid on and shake it a few times (care: slippery + hot) 

      Repeat as necessary. Keep it hot with a little boiling water if
      needed. If you have a cafeteriere, dissemble it, and soak the
      parts in the mixture for a few minutes, agitating occasionally. 

      In both cases, the residue just falls off with almost no
      scrubbing. It does great things with over-used filter machine
      filters, too. 

      Important: Rinse off all detergent afterwards, use lots of
      fresh water. 

    2. How to store coffee?

      One should always store coffee beans in a glass, air tight
      container. Air is coffee's principle enemy. Glass is best because
      it doesn't retain the odors of the beans or the oils, which could
      contaminate future beans stored in the same container. 

      For consumption within: 

      1 week
         room temperature is fine 
      2 weeks to a month 
         freeze them 

      This prevents the chemical reactions that produce stale beans
      and lifeless coffee. 

    3. Equipment reviews?

 4. Caffeine and your Health

   Important: This information was excerpted from several sources,
   no claims are made to its accuracy. The FAQ mantainer is not a
   medical doctor and cannot vouch for the accuracy of this

    1. What happens when you overdose?

      From Desk Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria from
      DSM-3-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987): 

      Caffeine-Induced Organic Mental Disorder 305.90 Caffeine

       1. Recent consumption of caffeine, usually in excess of
         250 mg. 
       2. At least five of the following signs: 
          1. restlessness 
          2. nervousness 
          3. excitement 
          4. insomnia 
          5. flushed face 
          6. diuresis 
          7. gastrointestinal disturbance 
          8. muscle twitching 
          9. rambling flow of thought and speech 
          10. tachycardia or cardiac arrhythmia 
          11. periods of inexhaustibility 
          12. psychomotor agitation 
       3. Not due to any physical or other mental disorder,
         such as an Anxiety Disorder. 

      Basically, overdosing on caffeine will probably be very very
      unpleasant but not kill or deliver permanent damage. However,
      People do die from it. 

      Summarized from the Manual: 

      Toxic dose
         The reported lethal dose is 10 grams, although one case
         documents survival after ingesting 24 grams. In small
         children ingestion of 35 mg/kg can lead to moderate
         toxicity. The amount of caffeine in an average cup of
         coffee is 50 - 200 mg. Infants metabolize caffeine very
          o Acute caffeine poisoning gives Early symptoms
            of anorexia, tremor, and restlessness. Followed
            by nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, and Confusion.
            Serious intoxication may cause delirium,
            seizures, supraventricular and ventricular
            tachyarrhythmias, hypokalemia, and
          o Chronic high-dose caffeine intake can lead to
            nervousness, irritability, anxiety, tremulousness,
            muscle twitching, insomnia, palpitations and
            hyperreflexia. For blood testing, cross-reaction
            with theophylline assays will detect toxic
            amounts. (Method IA) Blood concentration of
            1-10 mg/L is normal in coffee drinkers, while
            80 mg/L has been associated with death. 
          o Emergency Measures 
             o Maintain the airway and assist
               ventilation. (See Appendix A) 
             o Treat seizures & hypotension if they
             o Hypokalemia usually goes away by itself. 
             o Monitor Vital Signs. 
             o o Specific drugs & antidotes. Beta blockers
            effectively reverse cardiotoxic effects mediated
            by excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation. Treat
            hypotension or tachyarrhythmias with
            intravenous propanolol, .01 - .02 mg/kg. , or
            esmolol, .05 mg/kg , carefully titrated with low
            doses. Esmolol is preferred because of its short
            half life and low cardioselectivity. 
          o Decontamination 
             o Induce vomiting or perform gastric
             o Administer activated charcoal and
             o Gut emptying is probably not needed if 1
               2 are performed promptly. 
      Appendix A
         Performing airway assistance. 
          1. If no neck injury is suspected, place in the
            "Sniffing" position by tilting the head back and
            extending the front of the neck. 
          2. Apply the "Jaw Thrust" to move the tongue out
            of the way without flexing the neck: Place
            fingers form both under the back of the jaw and
            thrust the jaw forward so that the chin sticks out.
            This should also hurt the patient, allowing you to
            judge depth of coma. :) 
          3. Tilt the head to the side to allow vomit and snot
            to drain out. 

      From conversations on alt.drugs.caffeine: 

      The toxic dose is going to vary from person to person,
      depending primarily on built-up tolerance. A couple people
      report swallowing 10 to 13 vivarin and ending up in the
      hospital with their stomaches pumped, while a few say they've
      taken that many and barely stayed awake. 

      A symptom lacking in the clinical manual but reported by at
      least two people on the net is a loss of motor ability: inability
      to move, speak, or even blink. The experience is consistently
      described as very unpleasant and not fun at all, even by those
      very familiar with caffeine nausea and headaches. 

    2. Studies on the side-effects of caffeine.

      OAKLAND, California (UPI) -- Coffee may
      be good for life. A major study has found
      fewer suicides among coffee drinkers than
      those who abstained from the hot black

      The study of nearly 130,000 Northern
      California residents and the records of
      4,500 who have died looked at the effects
      of coffee and tea on mortality.

      Cardiologist Arthur Klatsky said of the
      surprising results, ``This is not a fluke
      finding because our study was very large,
      involved a multiracial population, men,
      women, and examined closely numerous
      factors related to mortality such as
      alcohol consumption and smoking.''

      The unique survey also found no link
      between coffee consumption and death
      risk. And it confirmed a ``weak''
      connection of coffee or tea to heart
      attack risk -- but not to other
      cardiovascular conditions such as stroke.

      The study was conducted by the health
      maintenance organization Kaiser
      Permanente and was reported Wednesday in
      the Annals of Epidemiology. 

    3. Caffeine and your metabolism. 

      Caffeine increases the level of circulating fatty acids. This has
      been shown to increase the oxidation of these fuels, hence
      enhancing fat oxidation. Caffeine has been used for years by
      runners and endurance people to enhance fatty acid metabolism.
      It's particularly effective in those who are not habitual users.

      Caffeine is not an appetite suppressant. It does effect
      metabolism, though it is a good question whether its use truly
      makes any difference during a diet. The questionable rationale
      for its original inclusion in diet pills was to make a poor man's
      amphetamine-like preparation from the non-stimulant
      sympathomimetic phenylpropanolamine and the stimulant
      caffeine. (That you end up with something very
      non-amphetamine like is neither here nor there.) The
      combination drugs were called "Dexatrim" or Dexa-whosis (as
      in Dexedrine) for a reason, namely, to assert its similarity in
      the minds of prospective buyers. However, caffeine has not
      been in OTC diet pills for many years per order of the FDA,
      which stated that there was no evidence of efficacy for such a

      From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of

      Caffeine in combination with an analgesic, such as aspirin,
      is widely used in the treatment of ordinary types of
      headache. There are few data to substantiate its efficacy for
      this purpose. Caffeine is also used in combination with an
      ergot alkaloid in the treatment of migrane (Chapter 39). 

      Ergotamine is usually administered orally (in combination
      with caffeine) or sublingually [...] If a patient cannot
      tolerate ergotamine orally, rectal administration of a
      mixture of caffeine and ergotamine tartarate may be

      The bioavailability [of ergotamine] after sublingual
      administration is also poor and is often inadequate for
      therapeutic purposes [...] the concurrent administration of
      caffeine (50-100 mg per mg of ergotamine) improves both
      the rate and extent of absorption [...] However, there is little
      correspondence between the concentration of ergotamine in
      plasma and the intensity or duration of therapeutic or toxic

      Caffeine enhances the action of the ergot alkaloids in the
      treatment of migrane, a discovery that must be credited to
      the sufferers from the disease who observed that strong
      coffee gave symptomatic relief, especially when combined
      with the ergot alkaloids. As mentioned, caffeine increases
      the oral and rectal absorption of ergotamine, and it is widely
      believed that this accounts for its enhancement of
      therapeutic effects.

      Finally, I'll add that adding small frogs to your coffee enhances
      absorption of several psychogenic tannins, a useful technique
      for studying temporary insanity. 

      I have some doubts about explanation of the mechanism(s) of
      the stimulatory effects of methylxanthines, like theophylline
      and caffeine. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase is certainly of
      little importance, since the concentrations of caffeine or
      theophylline capable of producing this effect are only rarely
      achieved in usual situations, including clinical ones. 

      Nowadays most of researchers believe that the stimulatory
      actions are attributable to the antagonism of the adenosine.
      Agree, agonists at the adenosine receptors produce sedation
      while antagonists at these sites, like caffeine and theophylline
      induce stimulation, and what is even more important, the latter
      substance also reverse agonists-induced symptoms of sedation,
      thus indicating that this effects go through these receptors. 

      Another possibility, however, is that methylxanthines enhance
      release of excitatory aminoacids, like glutamate and aspartate,
      which are the main stimulatory neurotransmitters in the brain. 

      As to the side effects: methylxanthines inhibit protective
      activity of common antiepileptic drugs in exptl. animals in
      doses comparable to those used in humans when correction to
      the surface area is made. It should be underlined, that although
      tolerance develop to the stimulatory effects of theo or caffeine
      when administered on a chronic base, we found no tolerance to
      the above effects . This hazardous influence was even enhanced
      over time. Therefore, it should be emphasized that individuals
      suffering from epilepsy should avoid, or at least reduce
      consumption of coffee and other caffeine-containing

 5. Miscellaneous

    1. How do you pronounce mate?

      MAH-teh. MAH like in malt, and -teh like in Gral. Patten. 

    2. How do you spell Colombia/Colombian?

    3. How do you spell Espresso?

      By far, the most common spelling used throughout the world
      today is "espresso". This is a shortened form of the original
      Italian name for the drink "caffe espresso" (accent marks
      omitted). This spelling is considered to be the correct spelling
      by the vast majority of of coffee consumers, vendors, retailers,
      and producers. 

      Some English language dictionaries also list "expresso" as a
      variant spelling. However, this does not mean the spelling is
      'equally valid'. (see the post by Jesse Sheidlower included

      It was pointed out during the great "espresso vs. expresso"
      debate (spring 94) that the Italian alphabet does not even
      contain the letter "X". 

      Further, it was discovered that at least three dictionaries
      contained incorrect *definitions* of the word "espresso". The
      American Heritage Dictionary gave the following definition: 

      "A strong coffee brewed by forcing steam under pressure
      through darkly roasted, powdered coffee beans." 

      The Oxford English Dictionary said: 

      "Coffee brewed by forcing steam through powdered coffee

      The Webster New World Dictionary gives: 

      "coffee prepared in a special machine from finely ground
      coffee beans, through which steam under high pressure is

      All three of these are wrong. In fact, espresso is a strong coffee
      brewed by quickly forcing *hot water* through darkly roasted,
      *finely ground* coffee beans. 

      (Some espresso makers do use steam, but only to force the hot
      water through the ground coffee. The steam NEVER touches
      the coffee. Many espresso makers use no steam at all. Instead,
      they use either a pump or a piston to quickly force hot water
      through the ground coffee.) 

      Once these errors and the origins of the word "espresso" had
      been pointed out, the argument "but expresso is in the
      dictionary" quickly began to crumble. The final death blow to
      this position came in a post by dictionary editor Jesse
      Sheidlower. This post is reproduced in its entirety below: 

      --------- Start of quuoted material

      From: (Jesse Sheidlower) 

      I find this thread fascinating. I regret that it demonstrates an
      unfamiliarity with dictionaries and how to use them, but no
      matter. I believe that I am the only dictionary editor to
      participate in this discussion, so let me waste a bit more
      bandwidth addressing some of the points made so far, and
      introducing a few others: 

       o The OED, Second Edition, does include _espresso_
         and _expresso_, the former being a variant of the
         latter. It correctly derives it from Italian _caffe
         espresso_. [Accents left off here.] Whoever claimed it
         derives the term from a would-be Italian _caffe
         expresso_ was in error. 
       o There _is_ an "x" in Latin. 
       o There are four major American dictionaries
         (published by Merriam Webster, Webster's New
         World, Random House, and American Heritage). The
         most recent edition of each gives _espresso_ as the
         main form, and _expresso_ as a variant only. The fact
         that _expresso_ is listed in the dictionary does not
         mean that it is equally common: the front matter for
         each dictionary explains this. The person who
         claimed that three dictionaries including OED give
         _expresso_ as "equally valid" was in error. 
       o Dictionaries, in general, do not dictate usage: they
         reflect the usage that exists in the language. If a
         dictionary says that _espresso_ is the main spelling,
         it means that in the experience of its editors (based
         on an examination of the language), _espresso_ is
         notably more common. It does not mean that the
         editors have a vendetta against _expresso_. 
       o To the linguist who rejects the authority of
         dictionaries: I agree that language is constantly
         changing; I'm sure that every dictionary editor in the
         country does as well. Dictionaries are outdated
         before they go to press. But I think they remain
         accurate to a large extent. Also, if you are going to
         disagree with the conclusions of a dictionary, you
         should be prepared to back yourself up. I can defend,
         with extensive written evidence, our decision to give
         _espresso_ as the preferred form. 
       o In sum: though both _espresso_ and _expresso_ are
         found, the former is by far the more common. It is
         also to be favored on immediate etymological
         evidence, since the Italian word from which it is
         directly borrowed is spelled _espresso_. The form
         _espresso_ is clearly preferred by all mainstream

      Jesse T Sheidlower. Editor. 

 6. Coffee Recipes and other beverages.

    1. Espresso

      After living in Italy (Rome) for two years and living off
      espresso, Mr. X have found American espresso doesn't cut it.
      Heres how to do it. 

       o Get good dark roasted espresso beans, imported Italian
         brand if you can find it. 
       o Pack your strainer real full. Pack it hard. your
         instructions will say NOT to pack it, but don't listen. 
       o Don't use too much water. Espresso in Italy is as thick
         as syrup. Very thick. 
       o Add two spoons of sugar, it's a sweet, thick liquid in

      Drink fast.


      If using a stove top espresso machine, clean after each use,
      paying attention to the seal and strainer.

       1. For best results, get arabica beans that have been roasted
         dark ("Italian Roast" is darkest) and are oily-looking.
         Other roasts are for other types of brewing: espresso
         machines won't draw the earthy flavour of Sumatran
         out, for example. A small amount of other beans might
         add a nice note to the flavour, though (I've had
         surprising success adding a few of Thanksgiving
         Coffee's "High-Caffeine Pony Express" beans, which
         are actually robusta beans from Thailand). 
       2. Grind those beans until they're very fine, but not quite a
         powder. Put them into the appropriate piece of your
         machine and tamp it down (but don't pack all the
         grounds in tight). 
       3. Watch the espresso as it drips down. Does a nice layer
         of foam form on the top? If it does, all is well; that
         foam is made from the flavourful oils, and it is called 
         crema. If not, go to the coffee roaster and demand
         quadruple your money back. 
       4. Never make more than 2oz at a time. If you're making
         two cups of espresso, make two separate shots. This is
         important. The idea is that the water rushes through and
         draws out only the most flavourful part of the grounds.
         More than 2oz and you're drawing out less flavourful
         stuff and diluting your espresso. If you're really
         hardcore, make only 1oz at a time; this is called caffe

    2. Capuccino

      Disclaimer: People prepare capuccino in many different ways,
      and in their very own way each one of them is correct. The
      following recipe, which is commonly used in Latin countries,
      has been tasted by several of my North-American friends and
      they unanimously agreed that capuccino prepared using this
      recipe tastes much better than the standard fare in USA/Canada. 

      Start with cold milk (it doesn't really need to be ice-cold), use
      homo milk or carnation. 2% or skim is just not thick enough.

      Place the milk on a special capuccino glass with a capuccino
      basket. (Capuccino glasses have a thinner bottom). 

      Aerate the milk near the top, within 2cm (1 in) of the top.
      Move the glass down as the milk aerates. It is a good idea to
      have an oscillating motion while aerating the milk. 

      Stop when the milk starts boiling or have it boil, let it cool
      down for a second or so (literally), and aerate again (it is harder
      to get a nice froth after the milk has boiled). 

      Aerating the milk in another container, then pouring in a
      glass and adding the foam with a spoon is sacrilege. 

      Anybody who has done so should make a pilgrimage to San
      Francisco's Girardelli's. Otherwise entry to heaven will be
      denied (god, is after all, Italian. At least the catholic one). 

      If you need to aerate the milk on a separate container, aerate
      exactly the amount of milk required for one cup, so no need to
      add foam with a spoon. 

      Once the milk has been aerated, promptly clean the aerator with
      a wet rag. Failure to do so will quickly result in rotten milk
      flavour coming from the aerator. 

      Another warning on similar lines applies to restaurant type
      coffee machines: leave the aerator valve open when powering
      the machine up and down. When the machine is off a partial
      vacuum is formed in the boiler that will suck milk residue into
      the boiler. This then coats the inside of the boiler and can cause
      bad smelling steam until the boiler is flushed. Some machines
      have a vacuum bleed valve to prevent this problem but many

      Wait for the steam pressure to build up again (for some
      capuccino makers wait time is near zero, for others it maybe as
      long as 60 secs). 

      Prepare the espresso coffee, you may add it directly on to the
      glass if possible or use a cup and then pour it from the cup on
      the milk. 

      According to Jym Dyer: In Italy, the milk is added TO the
      espresso, not the other way around, that way the milk is
      floating; on top, where you then add the sugar, and stir it up. 

      Capuccino tastes better when is really hot, and has two coffee
      teaspoons of sugar. (small teaspoons, like the ones in expensive

      Then accompany said cappuccino with a warm tea bisquet or
      english muffin with marmalade, or alternatively with a
      baguette sandwich or panini. 

    3. How to make your own chocolate

      Here's the recipe for making a real chocolate beverage.
      Important steps are in boldface. 


       o 1-2kg (2-4pounds) of cocoa beans. 
       o A manually operated grinder. 


       o Sift though the beans removing any impurities (pieces
         of grass, leaves, etc). 
       o Place the beans in a pan (no teflon) and roast them. Stir
         frequently. As the beans roast they start making "pop"
         sounds like popcorn. Beans are ready when you estimate
         that approx 50-75% of the beans have popped. Do not
         let the beans burn, though a bit of black on each bean is
       o Peel the beans. Peeling roasted cocoa beans is like
         peeling baked potatoes: The hotter they are the easier it
         is to peel the darn things, at the expense of third degree
         burns on your fingers. (Tip: Use kitchen mittens and
         brush the beans in your hands). If the beans are too hard
         to peel roast them a bit longer. 
       o Grind the beans into a pan. They produce a dark oily
         paste called "cocoa paste". 
       o The oil in the cocoa has a bitter taste that you have to
         get used to. I like it this way, but not all people do. Here
         are the alternatives: 

         With oil, which gives you a richer flavour: 

         Spread aluminum foil on a table and make small pies of
         chocolate, about 1/4 of an inch high, and 6 inches in
         diameter. Let them rest overnight. The morning after
         they are hard tablets. Remove them from the aluminum
         foil and rap them in it. Store in the freezer. 

         Without oil, some flavour is gone, less bitter, weaker
         (whimper) chocolate: 

         Put the paste inside a thin cloth (like linen), close the
         cloth and squeeze until the oil comes out. If you manage
         to get most of the oil out, what is left is high quality
         cocoa powder, like Droste's. 

         What is left now is either bitter tablets or bitter cocoa

      You can now make a nice beverage as follows: 

       o Boil a liter of milk (or water, like in ancient Mexican
         style. Like water for chocolate, "Como agua para
         chocolate": you know). 
       o When the milk is warm (not hot) add a chocolate pie in
         pieces. Stir with a blender (but be careful! the blender's
         electric cord should NOT touch the pot or any other hot
         thing around it). 
       o When the chocolate has dissolved add 1/2-3/4 cups of
         sugar (depending how sweet you like your chocolate)
         and blend in fast. Make sure the sugar is completely
         dissolved in the chocolate otherwise it would be
         bitter no matter how much sugar you may add
       o Add a teaspoon of cinnamon or natural vanilla flavour
         (artificial vanilla flavour with chocolate results in an
         awful medicine like flavour) if you like, and blend
       o Let the mixture boil, when it starts to get bubbly
         quickly remove the pan from the stove top, and rest the
         bottom against a soaked cloth. Put again on stove top, it
         should get bubbly almost immediately, remove once
         again and repeat one last time. This aerates the chocolate
         which enhances the flavour. 
       o In a mug, put about 1/2-3/4 of the chocolate mixture,
         and add cold milk, until the temperature and/or the
         concentration of the flavour is right for your tastes.
         Accompany with French Pastries. Yum Yum!! 


    4. How to make the best cup of coffee?

      The best coffee I ever tasted was while in the coffee growing
      regions of Mexico, in the state of Veracruz, in the town of
      Coatepec. The quality of the coffee was mostly due to the
      method of preparation than to the quality of the grains (which
      is at about the same level as an average colombian coffee).
      Here's how to make it: 

       o Grind the coffee grains from coarse to very coarse. 
       o Boil in a pan a litre of water (four cups). 
       o When the water is boiling, turn off the stove and add
         8-12 table spoons of coffee (2-3 spoons per each cup). 
       o Add two-three teaspoons of sugar per cup (for a total of
         8-12 spoons of sugar). 
       o Stir very slowly (the water is so hot that the sugar
         dissolves mostly on its own). 
       o Let the coffee rest for about 5 minutes. 
       o Strain the coffee using a metal strainer! Like the ones
         used for cooking. The strainer should be like the ones
         used by granny for making tea. The diameter is a bit
         smaller that a cup, with a semi-sphere shape. 
       o This coffee has grit in the bottom, even after being
         strained. Therefore do not stir the pot or the cup. If the
         coffee is shaked, let it rest for about five minutes.
         Needless to say, do not drink the last sip of coffee from
         the cup: it's all grit. If you want to add milk, add

      Warning: This coffee may fool you 'cause it has a very smooth
      taste but is extremely strong. Caffeine content per millilitre is
      right there with espresso, but you can't tell! 

      Note: For some strange reason, when preparing this coffee I
      tend to have a success ratio of about one out of two attempts. I
      still don't know what I'm doing wrong, since, as far as I can
      tell, always repeat the same steps. Perhaps sometimes I don't let
      the coffee rest long enough. 

      This type of coffee is similar in nature to the French press. And
      in principle, you could possibly add sugar to the ground coffee,
      then pour water, and lastly press with the strainer.

    5. Turkish Coffee

      From Schapira, The Book of Coffee and Tea: 

      Turkish coffee is prepared using a little copper pot called

      Use a heaping teaspoon of very finely ground coffee and one
      heaping teaspoon of sugar (to taste). Use about 3oz of

      The trick of it is to heat it until it froths, let it sit a little and
      allow it to cool until the froth settles, heating it to the same
      point a second time and serving. 

    6. Thai Iced Coffee

      Make very strong coffee (50-100% more coffee to water than
      usual), use something like Cafe Du Monde which has chicory in
      it. Pour 6-8 oz into cup and add about 1 Tbs sweetened
      condensed milk. Stir, then pour over ice. 

      You'll have to experiment with the strength and milk so you
      get lots of taste after the ice/water dilutes it. 

      My version comes from a newspaper article of many years ago,
      and simply calls for grinding two or three fresh cardamom pods
      and putting them in with the coffee grounds. Make a strong
      coffee with a fresh dark roast, chill it, sweeten and add
      half-and-half (that's what I saw the chef using at the last Thai
      restaurant I went to) to taste. 

      This is a derivation -from- memory of a recipe that I first read
      some two years or so ago for Thai iced coffee (that lovely stuff
      that I can drink for hours on end while I'm slurping down
      panang and pad thai): 

      Makes 1 8-cup pot of coffee 

       o 6 tablespoons whole rich coffee beans, ground fine 
       o 1/4 teaspoon ground coriander powder 
       o 4 or 5 whole green cardamom pods, ground 
       o Place the coffee and spices in the filter cone of your
         coffee maker. Brew coffee as usual; let it cool. 
       o In a tall glass, dissolve 1 or 2 teaspoons of sugar in an
         ounce of the coffee (it's easier to dissolve than if you
         put it right over ice). Add 5-6 ice cubes and pour coffee
         to within about 1" of the top of the glass. 
       o Rest a spoon on top of the coffee and slowly pour
         whipping cream into the spoon. This will make the
         cream float on top of the coffee rather than dispersing
         into it right away. 
       o To be totally cool, serve with Flexi-Straws and paper

      One other fun note: I got a fresh vanilla bean recently and put it
      to good use by sealing it in an airtight container with my sugar.
      The sugar gets the faintest vanilla aroma and is incredible in
      Real Chocolate Milk (TM) and iced coffee. 

      One final note: this would probably be even better with iced
      espresso, because the espresso is so much more powerful and
      loses its taste less when it's cold. 

      Another recipe: 
       o Strong, black ground coffee 
       o Sugar 
       o Evaporated (not condensed) milk 
       o Cardamom pods 

      Prepare a pot of coffee at a good European strength (Miriam
      Nadel suggests 2 tablespoons per cup, which I'd say is about
      right). In the ground coffee, add 2 or 3 freshly ground
      cardamom pods. (I've used green ones, I imagine the brown
      ones would give a slightly different flavour.) Sweeten while
      hot, then cool quickly. 

      Serve over ice, with unsweetened evaporated milk (or heavy
      cream if you're feeling extra indulgent). To get the layered
      effect, place a spoon atop the coffee and pour the milk carefully
      into the spoon so that it floats on the top of the coffee. 

      The recipe I have calls for: 

       o 1/4 cup strong French roasted coffee 
       o 1/2 cup boiling water 
       o 2 tsp sweetened condensed milk 
       o Mix the above and pour over ice. 

      I'd probably use less water and more coffee and milk. 

      There is also a stronger version of Thai coffee called "Oleng"
      which is very strong to me and to a lot of coffee lovers. 

      6 to 8 tablespoons ground espresso or French roast coffee 4 to 6
      green cardamom pods, crushed Sugar to taste Half-and-half or
      cream Ice cubes 

      Put the cardamom pods and the ground dark-roast coffee into a
      coffee press, espresso maker, or the filter of a drip coffee
      maker (if using a drip-style coffee maker, use half the water).
      Brew coffee as for espresso, stir in sugar. 

      Fill a large glass with ice and pour coffee over ice, leaving
      about 1/2 inch at the top. Place a spoon at the surface of the
      coffee and slowly pour half-and-half or cream into the spoon,
      so that it spreads across the top of the coffee rather than sinking
      in. (You'll stir it in yourself anyway, but this is a much prettier
      presentation and it's as used in most Thai restaurants.) 

      As with Vietnamese coffee, the struggle here is to keep from
      downing this all in ten seconds. 

    7. Vietnamese Iced Coffee

      Same coffee as above. Sweetened condensed (not evaporated)
      milk Ice 

      Make even stronger coffee, preferably in a Vietnamese coffee
      maker. (This is a metal cylinder with tiny holes in the bottom
      and a perforated disc that fits into it; you put coffee in the
      bottom of the cylinder, place the disc atop it, then fill with
      boiling water and a very rich infusion of coffee drips slowly
      from the bottom.) 

      If you are using a Vietnamese coffee maker, put two
      tablespoons of sweetened condensed milk in the bottom of a
      cup and put the coffee maker on top of the cup. If you are
      making espresso or cafe filter (the infusion method where you
      press the plunger down through the grounds after several
      minutes of infusion), mix the sweetened condensed milk and
      the coffee any way you like. 

      When the milk is dissolved in the coffee (yes, dissolved *is* the
      right word here!), pour the combination over ice and sip. 

      Thai and Vietnamese coffees are very different. 

      Ca phe sua da (Vietnamese style iced coffee) 

       o 2 to 4 tablespoons finely ground dark roast coffee
         (preferably with chicory) 
       o 2 to 4 tablespoons sweetened condensed milk (e.g.,
         Borden Eagle Brand, not evaporated milk!) 
       o Boiling water 
       o Vietnamese coffee press [see notes] 
       o Ice cubes 

      Place ground coffee in Vietnamese coffee press and screw lid
      down on the grounds. Put the sweetened condensed milk in the
      bottom of a coffee cup and set the coffee maker on the rim.
      Pour boiling water over the screw lid of the press; adjust the
      tension on the screw lid just till bubbles appear through the
      water, and the coffee drips slowly out the bottom of the press. 

      When all water has dripped through, stir the milk and coffee
      together. You can drink them like this, just warm, as ca phe sua
      neng, but I prefer it over ice, as ca phe sua da. To serve it that
      way, pour the milk-coffee mixture over ice, stir, and drink as
      slowly as you can manage. I always gulp mine too fast. :-) 


      A Vietnamese coffee press looks like a stainless steel top hat.
      There's a "brim" that rests on the coffee cup; in the middle of
      that is a cylinder with tiny perforations in the bottom. Above
      that rises a threaded rod, to which you screw the top of the
      press, which is a disc with similar tiny perforations. Water
      trickles through these, extracts flavour from the coffee, and
      then trickles through the bottom perforations. It is
      excruciatingly slow. Loosening the top disc speeds the process,
      but also weakens the resulting coffee and adds sediment to the

      If you can't find a Vietnamese coffee press, regular-strength
      espresso is an adequate substitute, particularly if made with
      French-roast beans or with a dark coffee with chicory. I've
      seen the commonly available Medaglia d'Oro brand coffee cans
      in Vietnamese restaurants, and it works, though you'll lose
      some of the subtle bitterness that the chicory offers. I think
      Luzianne brand coffee comes with chicory and is usable in
      Vietnamese coffee, though at home I generally get French roast
      from my normal coffee provider. 

      Of these two coffees, Vietnamese coffee should taste more or
      less like melted Haagen-Dasz coffee ice cream, while Thai iced
      coffee has a more fragrant and lighter flavour from the
      cardamom and half-and-half rather than the condensed milk.
      Both are exquisite, and not difficult to make once you've got
      the equipment. 

      As a final tip, I often use my old-fashioned on-the-stove
      espresso maker (the one shaped like an hourglass, where you put
      water in the bottom, coffee in the middle, and as it boils the
      coffee comes out in the top) for Thai iced coffee. The simplest
      way is merely to put the cardamom and sugar right in with the
      coffee, so that what comes out the top is ready to pour over ice
      and add half and half. It makes a delicious and very passable
      version of restaurant-style Thai iced coffee. 

    8. Melya

       o Espresso 
       o Honey
       o Unsweetened cocoa
      Brew espresso; for this purpose, a Bialetti-style stovetop will
      work. In a coffee mug, place 1 teaspoon of unsweetened
      powdered cocoa; then cover a teaspoon with honey and drizzle
      it into the cup. Stir while the coffee brews; this is the fun part.
      The cocoa seems to coat the honey without mixing, so you get a
      dusty, sticky mass that looks as though it will never mix. Then
      all at once, presto! It looks like dark chocolate sauce. Pour hot
      espresso over the honey, stirring to dissolve. Serve with cream
      (optional). I have never served this cold but I imagine it would
      be interesting; I use it as a great hot drink for cold days, though,
      so all my memories are of grey skies, heavy sweaters, damp
      feet and big smiles. 

 7. Administrivia

    1. List of Contributors

      This FAQ is a collective effort. Here's a list of most (all?) of
      the contributors. 

       o Marc Aurel ( 
       o Scott Austin ( 
       o Tom Benjamin ( 
       o David Alan Bozak (dab@moxie) 
       o Rajiv ( 
       o Jack Carter ( 
       o Richard Drapeau
       o Jym Dyer ( 
       o Steve Dyer ( 
       o Stefan Engstrom (stefan@helios.UCSC.EDU) 
       o Lemieux Francois (lemieuxf@ERE.UMontreal.CA) 
       o Scott Fisher ( 
       o Dave Huddle ( 
       o Tom F Karlsson ( 
       o Bob Kummerfeld ( 
       o John Levine ( 
       o Alex Lopez-Ortiz ( 
       o Steven Miale ( 
       o Alec Muffett ( 
       o Dana Myers (myers@cypress.West.Sun.COM) 
       o Tim Nemec ( 
       o Dave Palmer ( 
       o Stuart Phillips ( 
       o Cary A. Sandvig ( 
       o Stepahine da Silva ( 
       o Michael A Smith ( 
       o Mari J. Stoddard ( 
       o Adam Turoff ( 
       o Orion Wilson ( 
       o Piotr Wlaz (wlaz@plumcs11.umcs.lublin.ed) 
       o Ted Young (theodric@MIT.EDU) 
       o Steven Zikopoulos ( 

    2. Copyright

      This FAQ is Copyright (C) 1994 by Alex Lopez-Ortiz. This
      text, in whole or in part, may not be sold in any medium,
      including, but not limited to, electronic, CD-ROM, or
      published in print, without the explicit, written permission of
      Alex Lopez-Ortiz. 

Copyright (C) 1994, Alex Lspez-Ortiz.
Alex Lopez-Ortiz                                        FAX (519)-885-1208
Department of Computer Science                      University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1                                           Canada

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