Notes on "Two of Us" (TOU)

KEY	G Major

METER	4/4 (3/4, 2/4)

FORM	Intro -> Verse -> (Intro) -> Verse -> Bridge ->
                Verse -> Bridge -> Verse -> Outro (w/fadeout)

GENERAL POINTS OF INTEREST


Style and Form

- "Two of Us" (TOU) is an idyllic love song in which uneven phrase lengths, changes of meter, and novel chord changes liven up and add bite to an acoustic pseudo-folk song that might otherwise be a bit too sweet and blandly charming for its own good.

- The form is the very classic two-bridge variant in which just a single verse separates the bridges and there is no instrumental solo section. The repeat of the intro between the first two verses is a rare but far from unique touch.

- The change of meter in the Verse is one of the more extreme examples of this gambit this side of "She Said She Said" and "Good Day Sunshine."

- This song is a unique (?) example of where the _LIB_ album track is arguably the definitive "best" version. It's a later take of the song, more carefully arranged and more crisply performed than the one on the _Get Back_ album. And to give the devil his due, it's one of the only songs on the album for which Spector delivers a mix whose "finish" (in the photo processing or wood furniture sense of the word) feels appropriate to the style and mood of the music. See our Further Thoughts for more on this and the other alternate versions of TOU.


Melody and Harmony

- The Verse opens with an archtypal pentatonic lick in the tune, but adds in the 4th scale degree (C) for the rest of the section. The chords used in the Verse are small in number and are of common variety; i.e. I, ii, IV, V.

- The Bridge's casual shift to the parallel minor of the home key flattens the 3rd, 6th and 7th scale degrees of the tune, and thereby unavoidably alters a number of chords used in the section. It's the same trick Paul used (in the same key, no less!) back in "Here, There, and Everywhere" to make the same bittersweet point. In the earlier song he takes it a bit farther by actually settling down in the minor key with a full cadence. Here in TOU, the minor key is heavily implicated for sure, but is never 100% confirmed; the only V chord in the bridge is followed by the return to the Major mode.


Arrangement

- The backing track is for two acoustic rhythm guitars, a noodling electric lead guitar, and a relatively small part for percussion. You might jokingly say that had the "Unplugged" TV series in mind when they came up with it.

- The rhythm guitars create alot of percussive finger-nails-against-taut-string noise, plus there's what sounds like a Buddy Holly-era overdub of thigh slapping and guitar body patting added in, perhaps explaining the limited role for Ringo.

- George plays almost the whole way through. His part is scored in the tenor range and played quietly in background, though he does get one moment in the spotlight with a recurring scale figure that punctuates the metrical shifts in the second half of the verse. Ringo's drumming is limited to a snare tapping figure that joins the verse to the bridge plus some light cymbal work during the bridge.

- Paul's lead vocal is harmonized by John in 3rds for virtually the entire verse. Paul sings solo for most of the bridge, with John coming back at the 3rd for the last couple measures of the section.

SECTION-BY-SECTION WALKTHROUGH


Intro

- The four-measure intro establishes the home key by simple insistence on its I chord.

- The Beatles staggered entrance rule appplies even for so brief an introduction: we start off with a syncopated hook phrase on one of the acoustic guitars, followed by guitar body thuds in the second measure, and finally the rhythm guitar and electric lead parts kick in for the second half of the section.


Verse

- The verse has a relatively straightforward closed harmonic shape, starting and ending on I, but its phrasing and meter are far from it:

        --------------------------  2X  ------------------------
        4           4           2      4           4
        |G          |-          |-     |C          |a          |
G:       I                              IV	    ii



        3        3       3        3       3         2     4        4
        |G       |D    C |G       |D    C |G        |C    |G	   |-      |
         I        V    IV I        V    IV I         IV    I


- The phrasing pattern is "AB/AB,CCC'" in which the repeated "AB" couplet contrasts sharply in terms of rhythmic character and length with "C" phrases.

- Phrase "A" concludes with only half a measure. The unusual switch to 3/4 time for the iterated "C" phrase is no less interesting than the way in which the single 2/4 measure at the end of phrase "C'" would appear to belatedly make up for the half measure (2/4 beats) subtly left "missing" at the end of the "A" phrase. It's as if the "B" and "CC" pair of phrases were all shifted two beats out of alignment until that short 2/4 measure at the end of "C'" balances the books.

- IV -> ii makes for a lazy feeling chord progression; the "move" from one subdominant to another subdominant doesn't provide much in the way of a sense of teliological progress. The lazy effect is amplified by the way that the passing tones in the vocal lines here turn the second half of the measure 4 into a C9/7 chord. Substitute a G chord in the first (6/3) inversion for the second half of that measure and notice the difference.

- The form of the verse ending varies depending on context. The end of the first verse (the only one in the song followed immediately by another verse) rests for 1 measure on G, then repeats the entire Intro before the second verse. The second and third verses, both of which are followed by a bridge, use a two-measure rest on G to transition into the bridge sections. The final verse is a hybrid, with a two-measure rest followed by one more reprise of the Intro.


Bridge

- The meter is held constant for the bridge, but the harmony and phrase lengths still remain tricky:


        |Bb	|d	|g	|a	|-	|D	|
g:	 III     v       i       ii              V

- The phrasing has a free-verse A/B pattern in which the phrase lengths are 2 + 4 measures. The sustaining of the a minor chord for measures 2 & 3 of a four-measure phrase is a subtle type of slow syncopation.

- Cross relations abound as a result of the shift to the minor mode:


Outro

- Following a complete reprise of the Intro, the music fades out during eight measures worth of vamping on the rhythm guitars, with John whistling above it, and Paul making spoken interjections.

- Based on the evidence of outtakes, the fadeout here is a bit of a fake. I have every reason to believe that the performance in the studio ends with a complete ending, but the _LIB_ track cuts out before the final chord.

SOME FINAL THOUGHTS

- Unreleased recordings of TOU fall into three buckets: rehearsals, outtakes of the familiar official version, and outtakes of a different arrangement of the song. My knowledge of what is currently available under the counter is far from exhaustive but I believe it covers the highlights.


Rehearsals

- First runthrough of the song, 1/2/69 (Songs From the Past, volume 4)

- Paul coaches John on a backing vocal for the bridge


Outtakes of the official version

- "Funky Body take 1" (Unsurpassed Masters, volume 5)

- _Get Back_ album track, 1/24/69


Different Arrangement

- As the "Revolution" single is to "Revolution 1," so is the different arrangement of TOU to its official version, a sample of which appears in the _Let It Be_ film. At least two or more outtakes of the arrangement also appear on bootleg.

- The rock version, though it contains an enjoyable intensity, does not come close to the idyllic essence of the song as captured in the official version. By the same token, the alternate does, in its own way, cast a unique other light on the latter.

Regards,

Alan (awp@world.std.com)

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"A-minor sevens to D ...... ba' Bom."                    053199#167

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                Copyright (c) 1999 by Alan W. Pollack
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